The treatments described on steps 4 and higher are maintenance treatment with at least medium to high doses of inhaled corticosteroid with one or more additional controller medications, which may include a long-acting beta-2-agonist (LABA), a long-acting antimuscarinic
(tiotropium has recently been approved in many countries for the treatment of severe asthma),  slow-release theophylline, and a leukotriene modifier (montelukast).
The principal drugs used for OAB are antimuscarinic
The BESIDE results appear to indicate that adding mirabegron therapy, a Beta-3 adrenergic agonist, to solifenacin therapy, an antimuscarinic
, may offer relief from the burden of OAB," said Professor Marcus Drake, MA, DM, FRCS (Urol), University of Bristol and Bristol Urological Institute, Bristol, UK.
The Grant will fund the project titled 'An Imaging Biomarker for Bladder Activity Disorders: Functional Magnetic Resonance 7 Tesla Imaging ( fMRI) in combination with urodynamics to study the effect of bladder sensory stimulation on brain activity in patients with a Bladder activity disorder, including the effect of antimuscarinic
and beta mimetic agents'.
drugs such as oxybutynin are used as first-line pharmacotherapy with a proven clinical benefit.
Second-line treatments include oral antimuscarinic
drugs or mirabegron, preferably in an extended-release formulation if available to reduce the likelihood of dry mouth from immediate-release formulations.
Timing and frequency of physostigmine redosing for antimuscarinic
Pirenzepine is also an antimuscarinic
drug which has been used in the treatment of myopia progression.
Furthermore, the combination of PDE-5 inhibitors with an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist or antimuscarinic
agent may affect multiple peripheral targets of the urogenital tract.
Scopolamine is an antimuscarinic
agent with a potent action on salivary glands; it can reduce the volume of salivary secretion in human beings.
Also, some of the newer long-acting antimuscarinic
agents (LAMAs) include drugs such as aclidinium and glycopyrrolate.
Each tablet contains 6 mg of the antimuscarinic
solifenacin and 0.