antimetabolite


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Related to antimetabolite: methotrexate

antimetabolite

 [an″te-, an″ti-mĕ-tab´o-līt]
1. a substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite.
2. a class of antineoplastic agents consisting of antimetabolites of substances required for cell growth and replication; the interference with cell function is phase specific, largely in the S phase of the cell cycle. The group includes cladribine, cytarabine, floxuridine, fludarabine, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, and thioguanine. See also antineoplastic therapy.

an·ti·me·tab·o·lite

(an'tē-me-tab'ō-līt),
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; for example, ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

antimetabolite

/an·ti·me·tab·o·lite/ (an″te-) (an″ti-mĕ-tab´o-līt) a substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite.

antimetabolite

(ăn′tē-mĭ-tăb′ə-līt′, ăn′tī-)
n.
A substance that closely resembles an essential metabolite and therefore inhibits physiological reactions involving that metabolite.

an′ti·met′a·bol′ic (-mĕt′ə-bŏl′ĭk) adj.

antimetabolite

[-mətab′əlīt]
Etymology: Gk, anti + metabole, change
a drug or other substance that is an antagonist to or resembles a normal human metabolite and interferes with its function in the body, usually by competing for its receptors or enzymes. Among the antimetabolites used as antineoplastic agents are the folic acid analog methotrexate and the pyrimidine analog fluorouracil. The antineoplastic mercaptopurine, an analog of the nucleotide adenine and the purine base hypoxanthine, is a metabolic antagonist of both compounds. Thioguanine, another member of a large series of purine analogs, interferes with nucleic acid synthesis. Cytarabine, used in the treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia, is a synthetic nucleoside that resembles cytidine and kills cells that actively synthesize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), apparently by inhibiting the enzyme DNA polymerase.

antimetabolite

Antimetabolic agent Pharmacology Any agent–eg, MTX, 6-mercaptopurine, thioguanine, 5-FU, gemcitabine that is a structural analogue of a native cell metabolite, which either inhibits the enzymes of a particular metabolic pathway or is incorporated during synthesis to produce defective product or prevents replication; anti-metabolites are used as chemotherapeutics, antivirals and as immunosuppressants, and include analogues of purines–eg azathioprine, pyrimidines, folic acid–eg aminopterin, MTX See Azathioprine, Methotrexate.

an·ti·me·tab·o·lite

(an'tē-mĕ-tab'ō-līt)
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; e.g., ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

antimetabolite

An anticancer, or CYTOTOXIC, drug which acts by combining with essential enzymes within cancer cells so as to interfere with their metabolism and growth. To be useful, antimetabolites must be significantly more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells.

Antimetabolite

A drug that interferes with a cell's growth or ability to multiply.
Mentioned in: Chemotherapy

antimetabolite

a substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite.
References in periodicals archive ?
Antimetabolites, T-Cell Inhibitors and Alkylating Agents
Among potential combination partners are antimetabolites combined with other chemotherapeutic drugs or radiotherapy, to selectively enhance the antitumor activity and provide a selective protection of normal tissues (Bergman et al.
The mechanism of action of topotecan as a topoisomerase I inhibitor differs from that of the antimetabolite MTX often used for PCNSL.
There has been recent interest in the purine antimetabolite mycophenolate mofetil as a disease-modifying agent in autoimmune diseases.
On the other hand, the antimetabolite immunosuppressive medications used by Winchester(2) in HIV positive patients with Reiter's syndrome were associated with adverse consequences; two patients treated with methotrexate developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma, and one treated with azathiaprine developed severe, but reversible, fatigue and weight loss.
The chemotherapeutic agents selectively destroy the proliferating cancer cells, but dividing cells in other tissues and organs normally poisoned by such treatment (due to the high toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents) are protected by the cold and the specificity of the organ receiving the antimetabolite.
The company stated TRC102 (methoxyamine) is a novel, clinical-stage small molecule inhibitor of the DNA base excision repair pathway, which is a pathway that causes resistance to alkylating and antimetabolite chemotherapeutics.
Surgical intervention (trabeculectomy with antimetabolite or tube shunt implantation) was planned to reduce the IOP Complications of glaucoma surgery were explained to the patient, but we had to take into account alternative IOP reducing procedures due to patient's refusal of any surgical intervention.
5-FU is an antimetabolite that is used in glaucoma filtration surgery and has been proposed as a putative anti-adhesive drug for use following tendon repair.
45) The addition of antimetabolite mitomycin C to LES, applied after excimer laser ablation at a concentration of 0.
32) Macrocytosis frequently occurs in those receiving antimetabolite chemotherapy agents.
Relationship between antimetabolite toxicity and pharmacogenetics in Turkish cancer patients.