antilymphocyte serum

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Related to antilymphocyte serum: antilymphocyte globulin


 [se´rum] (pl. serums, se´ra) (L.)
the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the solid elements have been separated out. The term usually refers to blood serum, the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells, and remains fluid after clotting of blood. Blood serum from persons or animals whose bodies have built up antibodies is called antiserum or immune serum. Inoculation with such an antiserum provides temporary, or passive, immunity against the disease, and is used when a person has already been exposed to or has contracted the disease. Diseases in which passive immunization is sometimes used include diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and gas gangrene.
antilymphocyte serum (ALS) antiserum derived from animals that have been immunized against human lymphocytes, a powerful nonspecific immunosuppressive agent that causes destruction of circulating lymphocytes.
antirabies serum antiserum obtained from the blood serum or plasma of animals immunized with rabies vaccine; used for postexposure prophylaxis against rabies if rabies immune globulin is unavailable.
blood grouping s's preparations containing particular antibodies against red cell antigens, used for blood typing. Those most commonly used are the anti-A and anti-B blood grouping serums used to determine ABO blood types and the anti-Rh blood grouping serums (anti-D, anti-C, anti-E, anti-c, and anti-e) used to determine Rh blood types.
serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) see aspartate transaminase.
serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) see alanine transaminase.
immune serum antiserum.
pooled serum the mixed serum from a number of individuals.
serum sickness a hypersensitivity reaction following the administration of foreign serum or other antigens; it is marked by urticarial rashes, edema, adenitis, joint pains, high fever, and prostration. Reactions to tetanus antitoxin derived from horse serum were especially common but are now rare owing to refinement of the antigenic components.
serum sickness syndrome a serum sickness–like hypersensitivity reaction occurring after the administration of certain drugs. It is marked clinically by low-grade fever, urticaria, facial edema, pain and swelling of the joints, and lymphadenopathy, and occasionally may be associated with neuritis of the brachial plexus, guillain-barré syndrome, periarteritis nodosa, and nephritis.

an·ti·lym·pho·cyte se·rum (ALS),

antiserum against lymphocytes, used to suppress rejection of grafts or organ transplants; when used in humans, the globulin fraction of the heterologous serum (prepared in horse or other animals) is usually used in conjunction with other immunosuppressive agents (drugs or chemicals) and for a limited period of time.

antilymphocyte serum

A polyclonal antiserum raised in one species of animals against the lymphocytes, in particular T cells, of another (i.e., xenogeneic species), which upon injection causes profound immunosuppression and lymphocytopaenia.

an·ti·lym·pho·cyte se·rum

(ALS) (an'tē-lim'fō-sīt sēr'ŭm)
Antiserum against lymphocytes; used to suppress rejection of grafts or organ transplants.

antilymphocyte serum

antiserum containing antibodies specific for lymphocyte surface antigens that may be used to suppress delayed type hypersensitivity, particularly graft rejection, responses without affecting humoral immune response; abbreviated ALS. Used in organ transplantation, usually in combination with immunosuppressive drugs. Prepared by hyperimmunizing an animal, e.g. horse, with foreign, e.g. human, lymphocytes. See also antilymphocyte globulin.