antihypertensive

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antihypertensive

 [an″te-, an″ti-hi″per-ten´siv]
effective against hypertension.
antihypertensive agent an agent that reduces high blood pressure; there are many different types of drugs that do this. diuretics inhibit the reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules, causing an increase in urinary excretion of sodium and a decrease in the plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume. Drugs that act on adrenergic control of blood pressure include beta-adrenergic blocking agents such as propranolol, which act at beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and kidneys to reduce cardiac output and renin secretion, and others such as methyldopa that act on alpha-adrenergic mechanisms in the central or sympathetic nervous system to reduce peripheral vascular resistance. vasodilators act directly on the arterioles to produce the same effect. Almost every case of hypertension can be controlled by one of these drugs or a combination of them. The proper combination is determined by the response of the individual patient. In some cases several drugs must be tried before the right combination is found.
Patient Education. Instruction of the patient and significant others is an essential part of antihypertensive therapy. Learning objectives are based on the patient's particular regimen of drug therapy, allowance of sodium intake, and other dietary restrictions, such as a low-calorie diet to combat obesity.

Some antihypertensive drugs can produce acute hypotensive reactions. The patient will need to know how to prevent a hypotensive reaction and what measures to take should such a reaction occur.

Prevention of a hypotensive reaction includes avoiding hot baths and sudden immobility after exercise, both of which promote vasodilation and a lowering of arterial pressure. The patient also should be aware of the effect of sudden changes in position that can precipitate an attack of orthostatic hypotension. Pooling of blood in the lower limbs can divert it from the brain and other vital organs. This can sometimes be avoided by moving about frequently instead of standing motionless for long periods of time. Elastic stockings also help promote venous return from the legs and help prevent fainting from decreased cerebral blood supply.

Acute hypotension can be serious, but milder hypotensive reactions with faintness and weakness can be relieved at home if the patient lies down and elevates his lower extremities above the level of his head and flexes the thigh muscles to encourage the flow of blood from his feet and legs to his brain.

The patient on a diuretic that is not potassium-sparing will need instruction on the symptoms of potassium deficit, how to avoid potassium depletion, and when to notify the doctor should hypokalemia occur.

Limitation of sodium intake can be very confusing and emotionally stressful to the uninstructed patient. In order to comply with the prescribed restriction of sodium the patient will need to know about satisfying substitutes and alternative seasonings for food, to be aware of the necessity of reading labels carefully when buying prepared food and over-the-counter medications, and to recognize the relationship between sodium and high blood pressure and the reasons why high sodium intake is harmful to health and well-being.

an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive

(an'tē-hī-per-ten'siv),
Indicating a drug or mode of treatment that reduces the blood pressure of hypertensive patients.

antihypertensive

/an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive/ (-ten´siv) counteracting high blood pressure, or an agent that does this.

antihypertensive

(ăn′tē-hī′pər-tĕn′sĭv, ăn′tī-)
adj.
Reducing or controlling high blood pressure.
n.
An antihypertensive drug.

antihypertensive

[-hī·pərten′siv]
1 pertaining to a substance or procedure that reduces high blood pressure.
2 an antihypertensive agent. Various drugs achieve their antihypertensive effect by depleting tissue stores of catecholamines in peripheral sites, by stimulating pressor receptors in the carotid sinus and heart, by blocking autonomic nerve impulses that constrict blood vessels, by stimulating central inhibitory alpha2 receptors, or by causing vasodilation. Thiazides and other diuretic agents inhibit the reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules, increasing urinary excretion of sodium and decreasing plasma and extracellular fluid volume, decreasing blood volume. Drugs that act on adrenergic control of blood pressure include beta-adrenergic blocking agents, which act at beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and kidneys to reduce cardiac output and renin secretion; and others that act on alpha-adrenergic mechanisms in the central or sympathetic nervous system to reduce peripheral vascular resistance. Vasodilatators act directly on the arterioles to produce the same effect. Other drugs used to treat hypertension are HCl, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, nonnitrate vasodilators, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin receptor blockers. Almost every case of hypertension can be controlled by one of these drugs or a combination of them. The proper combination is determined by the response of the individual. In some cases, several drugs must be tried before the right combination is found. Compare antihypotensive.

antihypertensive

adjective Referring to an agent or mechanism that counters hypertension.

noun An agent used to manage hypertension.

antihypertensive

adjective Referring to an agent or mechanism that reduces HTN noun An agent used to manage HTN

an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive

(an'tē-hī-pĕr-ten'siv)
Indicating a drug or mode of treatment that reduces the blood pressure of people with hypertension.

antihypertensive

1. Acting against high blood pressure (HYPERTENSION).
2. A drug used in the treatment of high blood pressure.

Antihypertensive

Used to describe drugs or treatments designed to control hypertension, or high blood pressure.
Mentioned in: Hyperaldosteronism

antihypertensive,

n a medicine or substance that reduces blood pressure.

an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive

(an'tē-hī-pĕr-ten'siv)
Indicating a drug or treatment that reduces the blood pressure of hypertensive patients.

antihypertensive

acting to reduce tension; in medical terms, usually referring to elevated blood pressure. Drugs used for this purpose include diuretics, β-adrenergic antagonists, and vasodilators.
References in periodicals archive ?
One aspect that makes this treatment especially attractive is losartan's extensive safety record as an antihypertensive drug that is also often used to treat patients with heart failure, Dr.
Rate and determinants of 10-year persistence with antihypertensive drugs.
Several trials demonstrated potential positive effect on BP reduction when compared with antihypertensive drug therapy; however, it was not associated with a statistically significant effect on both SBP and DBP reduction in other 3 trials.
A sensitivity analysis that excluded use of other potential fall-causing drugs and psychotropic drugs that can trigger falls, confirmed the initial association between antihypertensive drug initiation and early hip fracture with a nearly identical incidence ratio of 1.
14) Treatment with ARBs has been associated with higher rates of adherence with therapy than other antihypertensive drug classes.
A second objective was to assess the overall influence of antihypertensive drug therapy and variation in dietary sodium balance on diagnostic accuracy of the ratio.
In addition, approximately two-thirds of hypertensive patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals, further emphasizing the importance of antihypertensive drug combinations and of studies of safety and efficacy such as this program's.
The Cochrane research team, led by Diana Diao of the University of British Columbia (Vancouver, Canada), searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011), EMBASE (1980 to May 2011), and article reference lists for randomized controlled trials of antihypertensive drug treatment.
Certain high-risk conditions are compelling indications for the initial use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); (5) Most patients with hypertension will require 2 or more antihypertensive medications to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease); (6) If BP is more than 20/10 mm Hg above goal BP, consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 2 agents, 1 of which usually should be a thiazide-type diuretic; and (7) The most effective therapy prescribed by the most careful clinician will control hypertension only if patients are motivated.
The volume's 19 chapters describe the methodology of self and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in research and clinical practice; advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of the circadian biology of cardiovascular disease; issues of ambulatory blood pressure in special populations of patients with hypertension; and the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on the circadian variation of blood pressure, heart rate, and myocardial ischemia.
On days 4, 6, and 11, each man took 10 milligrams of felodipine, an antihypertensive drug whose effect is enhanced by the juice (SN: 2/9/91, p.