antihypertensive

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antihypertensive

 [an″te-, an″ti-hi″per-ten´siv]
effective against hypertension.
antihypertensive agent an agent that reduces high blood pressure; there are many different types of drugs that do this. diuretics inhibit the reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules, causing an increase in urinary excretion of sodium and a decrease in the plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume. Drugs that act on adrenergic control of blood pressure include beta-adrenergic blocking agents such as propranolol, which act at beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and kidneys to reduce cardiac output and renin secretion, and others such as methyldopa that act on alpha-adrenergic mechanisms in the central or sympathetic nervous system to reduce peripheral vascular resistance. vasodilators act directly on the arterioles to produce the same effect. Almost every case of hypertension can be controlled by one of these drugs or a combination of them. The proper combination is determined by the response of the individual patient. In some cases several drugs must be tried before the right combination is found.
Patient Education. Instruction of the patient and significant others is an essential part of antihypertensive therapy. Learning objectives are based on the patient's particular regimen of drug therapy, allowance of sodium intake, and other dietary restrictions, such as a low-calorie diet to combat obesity.

Some antihypertensive drugs can produce acute hypotensive reactions. The patient will need to know how to prevent a hypotensive reaction and what measures to take should such a reaction occur.

Prevention of a hypotensive reaction includes avoiding hot baths and sudden immobility after exercise, both of which promote vasodilation and a lowering of arterial pressure. The patient also should be aware of the effect of sudden changes in position that can precipitate an attack of orthostatic hypotension. Pooling of blood in the lower limbs can divert it from the brain and other vital organs. This can sometimes be avoided by moving about frequently instead of standing motionless for long periods of time. Elastic stockings also help promote venous return from the legs and help prevent fainting from decreased cerebral blood supply.

Acute hypotension can be serious, but milder hypotensive reactions with faintness and weakness can be relieved at home if the patient lies down and elevates his lower extremities above the level of his head and flexes the thigh muscles to encourage the flow of blood from his feet and legs to his brain.

The patient on a diuretic that is not potassium-sparing will need instruction on the symptoms of potassium deficit, how to avoid potassium depletion, and when to notify the doctor should hypokalemia occur.

Limitation of sodium intake can be very confusing and emotionally stressful to the uninstructed patient. In order to comply with the prescribed restriction of sodium the patient will need to know about satisfying substitutes and alternative seasonings for food, to be aware of the necessity of reading labels carefully when buying prepared food and over-the-counter medications, and to recognize the relationship between sodium and high blood pressure and the reasons why high sodium intake is harmful to health and well-being.

an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive

(an'tē-hī-per-ten'siv),
Indicating a drug or mode of treatment that reduces the blood pressure of hypertensive patients.

antihypertensive

/an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive/ (-ten´siv) counteracting high blood pressure, or an agent that does this.

antihypertensive

(ăn′tē-hī′pər-tĕn′sĭv, ăn′tī-)
adj.
Reducing or controlling high blood pressure.
n.
An antihypertensive drug.

antihypertensive

[-hī·pərten′siv]
1 pertaining to a substance or procedure that reduces high blood pressure.
2 an antihypertensive agent. Various drugs achieve their antihypertensive effect by depleting tissue stores of catecholamines in peripheral sites, by stimulating pressor receptors in the carotid sinus and heart, by blocking autonomic nerve impulses that constrict blood vessels, by stimulating central inhibitory alpha2 receptors, or by causing vasodilation. Thiazides and other diuretic agents inhibit the reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules, increasing urinary excretion of sodium and decreasing plasma and extracellular fluid volume, decreasing blood volume. Drugs that act on adrenergic control of blood pressure include beta-adrenergic blocking agents, which act at beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and kidneys to reduce cardiac output and renin secretion; and others that act on alpha-adrenergic mechanisms in the central or sympathetic nervous system to reduce peripheral vascular resistance. Vasodilatators act directly on the arterioles to produce the same effect. Other drugs used to treat hypertension are HCl, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, nonnitrate vasodilators, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin receptor blockers. Almost every case of hypertension can be controlled by one of these drugs or a combination of them. The proper combination is determined by the response of the individual. In some cases, several drugs must be tried before the right combination is found. Compare antihypotensive.

antihypertensive

adjective Referring to an agent or mechanism that counters hypertension.

noun An agent used to manage hypertension.

antihypertensive

adjective Referring to an agent or mechanism that reduces HTN noun An agent used to manage HTN

an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive

(an'tē-hī-pĕr-ten'siv)
Indicating a drug or mode of treatment that reduces the blood pressure of people with hypertension.

antihypertensive

1. Acting against high blood pressure (HYPERTENSION).
2. A drug used in the treatment of high blood pressure.

Antihypertensive

Used to describe drugs or treatments designed to control hypertension, or high blood pressure.
Mentioned in: Hyperaldosteronism

antihypertensive,

n a medicine or substance that reduces blood pressure.

an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive

(an'tē-hī-pĕr-ten'siv)
Indicating a drug or treatment that reduces the blood pressure of hypertensive patients.

antihypertensive

acting to reduce tension; in medical terms, usually referring to elevated blood pressure. Drugs used for this purpose include diuretics, β-adrenergic antagonists, and vasodilators.
References in periodicals archive ?
Which classes of antihypertensive agents have been studied in randomized trials examining patients with hypertension on hemodialysis?
6) However, in high-risk patients, treatment with specific classes of antihypertensive agents has been shown to improve disease outcomes.
Diabetes Antihypertensive Agent Hyperlipidemia mellitus (partial list) Diuretics: Hydrochlorothiazide High High (Hydrodiuril), Loop diuretic doses UF doses UF such as Furosemide Beta blocker with intrinsic F UF sympathomimetic activity: pindolol (Visken); carteolol HCL (Cartrol); acebutolol (Sectral); combined alpha/beta blocker: carvedilol (Coreg) Beta blocker without ISA: propranolol (Inderal); UF UF atenolol (Tenormin) [Alpha.
AR9281 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (s-EH), an enzyme which plays a key role in arachidonic acid metabolism, and has the potential to be a first-in-class antihypertensive agent with end organ protection and anti-inflammatory properties.
has initiated the first in a series of planned clinical trials for the first selected drug candidate from the companies' major collaborative agreement to develop new nitric oxide- donating antihypertensive agents using NicOx' proprietary technology.
There is a clear need for new and better IV antihypertensive agents that provide rapid and predictable blood pressure control, and we are working to address that need.
Early chapters cover disease mechanisms, evaluation of the patient, and clinical pharmacology of antihypertensive agents.
In fact, clinical trials suggest that most patients require 2 or more antihypertensive agents to reach the currently recommended BP goals of <140/90 mm Hg in those with hypertension and <130/80 mm Hg in those with hypertension and diabetes or chronic kidney disease.
Increasingly combined antihypertensive agents are being used in practice to enhance control and improve compliance.
Pending approval, the combination will be indicated for the treatment of hypertension and may be used either alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
For men taking VIAGRA and high blood pressure medication, the incidence of treatment-related adverse events was similar to that for the VIAGRA-treated men not taking any antihypertensive agents.