plasma

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plasma

 [plaz´mah]
1. the fluid portion of the lymph.
2. the fluid portion of the blood, in which the formed elements (blood cells) are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum, which is plasma from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting. Called also blood plasma. adj., adj plasmat´ic, plas´mic.

Of the total volume of blood, 55 per cent is made up of plasma. It is a clear, straw-colored liquid, 92 per cent water, in which are contained plasma proteins, inorganic salts, nutrients, gases, waste materials from the cells, and various hormones, secretions, and enzymes. These substances are transported to or from the tissues of the body by the plasma.

Plasma obtained from blood donors is given to persons suffering from loss of blood or from shock to help maintain adequate blood pressure. Since plasma can be dried and stored in bottles, it can be transported almost anywhere, ready for immediate use after addition of the appropriate fluid. Plasma can be given to anyone, regardless of blood type. (See also transfusion.)

Plasma volume is sometimes measured in order to calculate the total blood volume. The most common method for determining plasma volume is by injection of a dye (T-1824, called Evans blue) into the circulating blood and, after the dye has been dispersed throughout the body, using the dilution of the dye to calculate the total blood volume.
antihemophilic human plasma normal human plasma that has been processed promptly to preserve the antihemophilic properties of the original blood; used for temporary correction of bleeding tendency in hemophilia.
blood plasma plasma (def. 2).
citrated plasma blood plasma treated with sodium citrate, which prevents clotting.
plasma exchange the removal of plasma from withdrawn blood (plasmapheresis) and retransfusion of the formed elements and type-specific fresh frozen plasma into the donor; done for removal of circulating antibodies or abnormal plasma components.
fresh frozen plasma plasma separated from whole blood and frozen within 8 hours; it contains all the coagulation factors.
plasma thromboplastin antecedent deficiency hemophilia C.

plas·ma

(plaz'mă),
1. The proteinaceous fluid (noncellular) portion of the circulating blood, as distinguished from the serum obtained after coagulation. Synonym(s): blood plasma
2. The fluid portion of the lymph.
3. The fluid in which the fat droplets of milk are suspended.
4. A "fourth state of matter" in which, owing to elevated temperature, atoms have broken down to form free electrons and more-or-less stripped nuclei; produced in the laboratory in connection with hydrogen fusion (thermonuclear) research.
5. Highly ionized gas.
Synonym(s): plasm
[G. something formed]

plasma

/plas·ma/ (plaz´mah)
1. blood plasma; the fluid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended.
2. the fluid portion of the lymph.plasmat´ic

antihemophilic human plasma  human plasma which has been processed promptly to preserve the antihemophilic properties of the original blood; used for temporary correction of bleeding tendency in hemophilia.
blood plasma  plasma (1).
citrated plasma  blood plasma treated with sodium citrate, which prevents clotting.
seminal plasma  the fluid portion of the semen, in which the spermatozoa are suspended.

plasma

(plăz′mə)
n. also plasm (plăz′əm)
1.
a. The clear, yellowish fluid portion of blood, lymph, or intramuscular fluid in which cells are suspended. It differs from serum in that it contains fibrin and other soluble clotting elements.
b. Blood plasma, especially when sterilized and depleted of cells for transfusion.
2. Protoplasm or cytoplasm.

plas·mat′ic (plăz-măt′ĭk), plas′mic (-mĭk) adj.

plasma

[plaz′mə]
Etymology: Gk, something formed
the watery light yellow fluid part of the lymph and the blood in which leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets are suspended. Plasma is made up of water, electrolytes, proteins, glucose, fats, bilirubin, and gases and is essential for carrying the cellular elements of the blood through the circulation, transporting nutrients, maintaining the acid-base balance of the body, and transporting wastes from the tissues. Plasma and interstitial fluid correspond closely in content and concentration of proteins. Therefore plasma is important in maintaining the osmotic pressure and the exchange of fluids and electrolytes between the capillaries and the tissues. Compare serum.

plasma

Lab medicine A clear yellowish extracellular fluid that comprises 50-55% of the blood volume; it is 92% liquid, 7% protein, < 1% inorganic salts, gases, hormones, sugars, lipids; fibrinogen- and coagulation factor-depleted plasma is 'serum'  Transfusion medicine See Fresh frozen plasma.

plas·ma

(plaz'mă)
1. The fluid (noncellular) portion of the circulating blood, as distinguished from the serum obtained after coagulation.
Synonym(s): blood plasma.
2. The fluid portion of the lymph.
3. A "fourth state of matter" in which, owing to elevated temperature (about 106 degrees), atoms have broken down to form free electrons and more or less stripped nuclei; produced in the laboratory in connection with hydrogen fusion (thermonuclear) research.
Synonym(s): plasm.
[G. something formed]

plasma

1. The fluid in which the blood cells are suspended.
2. Blood from which all cells have been removed. Plasma contains proteins, electrolytes and various nutrients and is capable of clotting.

plasma

  1. the cellular PROTOPLASM inside a plasma membrane.
  2. see BLOOD PLASMA.

Plasma

Plasma makes up 50% of human blood. It is a watery fluid that carries red cells, white cells, and platelets throughout the body.

plasma

liquid fraction of blood, containing globular and soluble proteins

plas·ma

(plaz'mă)
Proteinaceous fluid (noncellular) portion of circulating blood, as distinguished from the serum obtained after coagulation.
[G. something formed]

plasma (plaz´mə),

n the fluid portion of the blood that, after centrifugation, contains all the stable components except the cells. It is obtained from centrifuged whole blood that has been prevented from clotting by the addition of anticoagulants such as citrate, oxalate, or heparin.
plasma accelerator globulin,
plasma cell,
n a lymphoid or lymphocyte-like cell found in the bone marrow, connective tissue, and sometimes the blood. Plasma cells are involved in the immunologic mechanism. See also cell, plasma.
plasma, normal human,
n pooled sterile plasma from a number of persons to which a preservative has been added. It is stored under refrigeration or desiccated for later use as a substitute for whole blood.
plasma, platelet-rich (PRP),
n a type of blood that contains high levels of platelets consisting of numerous growth factors. It can be used as one component assisting in the acceleration of tissue healing in bone regeneration.
plasma proteolytic enzyme,
n See plasmin.
plasma spray,
n the focused shooting of ceramic or metal powders on a hot plasma flame to initiate further heating and then rapid cooling, resulting in a thick coated surface on an implant.
plasma thromboplastin antecedent,
n a factor required for the development of thromboplastic activity in plasma. Also called
antihemophilic factor C, factor XI, PTA, and
plasma thromboplastin factor C.
plasma thromboplastin component,
n a clotting factor in normal blood necessary for the development of thromboplastic activity in plasma. A deficiency results in Christmas disease. Also called
antihemophilic factor B, autoprothrombin II, Christmas factor, factor IX, platelet cofactor II, and
PTC. See also factor IX.

plasma

the fluid portion of the blood in which corpuscles are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum, which is plasma from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting.

plasma bound
many electrolytes exist in plasma in a form in which they are bound to protein which reduces their lability and liability to loss in the urine, e.g. protein-bound iodine.
plasma cell gingitivitis-pharyngitis
see feline plasma cell gingivitis-pharyngitis.
plasma cell myeloma
see multiple myeloma.
plasma cell pododermatitis
a nonpainful swelling with ulceration and exuberant granulation tissue on the footpads of cats. The cause is unknown but believed to be immunological.
Enlarge picture
Plasma cell pododermatitis in a cat.
plasma clearing factor
a lipoprotein lipase which lipolyses the triglyceride in the chylomicrons of the plasma and hence clears it of cloudiness.
plasma exchange
the removal of plasma from withdrawn blood (plasmapheresis) and retransfusion of the formed elements and type-specific fresh-frozen plasma into the donor; done for removal of circulating antibodies or abnormal plasma components.
plasma expanders
see plasma volume expander.
fresh-frozen plasma
prepared from whole blood; a source of coagulation factors.
plasma protein
the heterologous group of proteins in circulating blood that includes albumin, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, transcortin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, cholinesterase, α2-macroglobulin, erythropoietin, transferrin, hemopexin, fibrinogen, plasminogen and the immunoglobulins (γ-globulins).
plasma protein:fibrinogen (PP:F) ratio
an indicator of significant changes in fibrinogen levels, taking into account dehydration.
plasma substitute
a fluid suitable for use as a replacement for plasma in the animal body. Usually a solution of gelatin or dextran.
therapeutic plasma concentration
a therapy-response relationship determined only by experiment; the plasma level which is matched by the desired therapeutic response.
plasma thromboplastin antecedent
clotting factor XI; see plasma thromboplastin antecedent.
plasma turbidity test
a qualitative test for fat absorption, performed by comparing the turbidity of plasma before and 2, 3 and 4 hours after the oral administration of fats, usually vegetable oil. Results are greatly influenced by delays in gastric emptying, so normally this test can only be relied upon to rule out malabsorption or maldigestion when evidence of absorption is found.
plasma volume
the estimation of plasma volume is essential to a complete knowledge of a patient's fluid status. The common technique is by the intravenous injection of a known amount of a dye such as Evans blue and the subsequent measurement of the dilution that it has undergone in a set time period.