globulin

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globulin

 [glob´u-lin]
any of numerous proteins that are insoluble in water or highly concentrated salt solutions but soluble in moderately concentrated salt solutions. All plasma proteins except albumin and prealbumin are globulins. The plasma globulins are separated into five fractions by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE). In order of decreasing electrophoretic mobility these fractions are the alpha1-, alpha2-, beta1-, and beta2-globulins, and the gamma globulins.

The globulins include carrier proteins, which transport specific substances; acute phase reactants, which are involved in the inflammatory process; coagulation factors; complement components; and immunoglobulins. Examples are transferrin, a beta1-globulin that transports iron, and alpha1-antitrypsin, an acute phase reactant that inhibits serum proteases. The gamma globulin fraction is almost entirely composed of immunoglobulins.
accelerator globulin factor V, one of the coagulation factors.
antihemophilic globulin (AHG) factor VIII, one of the coagulation factors.
antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) the gamma globulin fraction of antilymphocyte serum; used as an immunosuppressant in organ transplantation. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with antithymocyte globulin.
antithymocyte globulin (ATG) the gamma globulin fraction of antiserum derived from animals (such as rabbits) that have been immunized against human thymocytes; an immunosuppressive agent that causes specific destruction of T lymphocytes, used in treatment of allograft rejection. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with antilymphocyte globulin.
bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin (BPIG) a human immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of adult human donors immunized with Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal, and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines; used for passive immunization of infants under 18 months of age.
cytomegalovirus immune globulin a purified immunoglobulin derived from pooled adult human plasma selected for high titers of antibody against cytomegalovirus; administered intravenously for treatment and prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in transplant recipients.
gamma globulin
hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) a specific immune globulin derived from plasma of human donors with high titers of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); used for postexposure prophylaxis following contact with HBsAg-positive materials, also administered to infants of HBsAg-positive mothers.
hyperimmune globulin any of various immune globulin preparations especially high in antibodies against certain specific diseases.
immune globulin
2. a concentrated preparation containing mostly gamma globulins, predominantly IgG, from a large pool of human donors; used for passive immunization against measles, hepatitis A, and varicella and for treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia or agammaglobulinemia in immunodeficient patients, administered intramuscularly. See also immune g. intravenous (human).
immune globulin intravenous (human) a preparation of immune globulin suitable for intravenous administration; used in the treatment of primary immunodeficiency disorders and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and as an adjunct in the treatment of Kawasaki disease and the prevention of infections associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, bone marrow transplantation, and pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.
immune human serum globulin immune globulin (def. 2).
immune serum globulin immune g. (def. 2).
pertussis immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of human donors immunized with pertussis vaccine; used for the prophylaxis and treatment of pertussis.
rabies immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from plasma of human donors hyperimmunized with rabies vaccine; administered in conjunction with rabies vaccine in cases of bite or scratch exposure to known or suspected rabid animals.
respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous a preparation of immunoglobulin G from pooled adult human plasma selected for high titers of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus; used for passive immunization of infants and young children.
Rh0(D) immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from human blood plasma containing antibody to the erythrocyte factor Rh0(D); used to prevent Rh-sensitization of Rh-negative females and thus prevent erythroblastosis fetalis in subsequent pregnancies; administered within 72 hours after exposure to Rh-positive blood resulting from delivery of an Rh-positive child, abortion or miscarriage of an Rh-positive fetus, or transfusion of Rh-positive blood. It is also used as a platelet count stimulator in the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
serum g's all plasma proteins except albumin, which is not a globulin, and fibrinogen, which is not in the serum. The serum globulins are subdivided into alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulins on the basis of their relative electrophoretic mobilities.
specific immune globulin a preparation of immune globulin derived from a donor pool preselected for high antibody titer against a specific antigen, such as hepatitis B immune globulin.
tetanus immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of human donors who have been immunized with tetanus toxoid; used in the prophylaxis and treatment of tetanus.
thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) (thyroxine-binding globulin) an acidic glycoprotein that is the main binding protein in the blood for thyroxine, and less firmly for triiodothyronine.
vaccinia immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of human donors who have been immunized with vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine; used as a passive immunizing agent.
varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) a specific immune globulin derived from plasma of human donors with high titers of varicella-zoster antibodies; used for prevention or amelioration of varicella in immunocompromised patients exposed to the disease and in neonates whose mothers develop varicella in the perinatal period.

glob·u·lin

(glob'yū-lin),
Name for a family of proteins precipitated from plasma (or serum) by half-saturation with ammonium sulfate (that is, addition of an equal volume of saturated ammonium sulfate). Globulins may be further fractionated by solubility, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and other separation methods into many subgroups. The main groups are α-, β-, and γ-globulin, which contain most antibodies.
[L. globulus, globule]

globulin

/glob·u·lin/ (glob´u-lin) any of a class of proteins insoluble in water, but soluble in saline solutions (euglobulins), or water-soluble proteins (pseudoglobulins); their other physical properties resemble true globulins; see serum g.
α-globulins  serum globulins with the most rapid electrophoretic mobility, further subdivided into faster α1- and slower α2-globulins.
AC globulin , accelerator globulin coagulation factor V.
alpha globulins  α.
antihemophilic globulin  (AHG) coagulation factor VIII.
antilymphocyte globulin  (ALG) the gamma globulin fraction of antilymphocyte serum (q.v.), used as an immunosuppressant in organ transplantation.
antithymocyte globulin  (ATG) the gamma globulin fraction of antiserum derived from animals (e.g., rabbits) that have been immunized against human thymocytes; it causes specific destruction of T lymphocytes, used in treatment of allograft rejection.
β-globulins  globulins in plasma which, in neutral or alkaline solutions, have an electrophoretic mobility between those of the alpha and gamma globulins.
bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin  (BPIG) a human immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of adult human donors immunized with Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal, and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines; used for the passive immunization of infants under 18 months of age.
beta globulins  β.
cytomegalovirus immune globulin  a purified immunoglobulin derived from pooled adult human plasma selected for high titers of antibody against cytomegalovirus (CMV); used for the treatment and prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in transplant recipients.
γ-globulins , gamma globulins serum globulins having the least rapid electrophoretic mobility; the fraction is composed almost entirely of immunoglobulins.
hepatitis B immune globulin  a specific immune globulin derived from blood plasma of human donors with high titers of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen; used as a passive immunizing agent.
hyperimmune globulin  any of various immunoglobulin preparations especially high in antibodies against certain specific diseases.
immune globulin 
2. a concentrated preparation of gamma globulins, predominantly IgG, from a large pool of human donors; used for passive immunization against measles, hepatitis A, and varicella and for replacement therapy in patients with immunoglobulin deficiencies.
immune human serum globulin  immune g. (2).
immune globulin intravenous (human)  a preparation of immune globulin suitable for intravenous administration; used in the treatment of primary and secondary immunodeficiency states, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and Kawasaki disease.
immune serum globulin  immune g. (2).
pertussis immune globulin  a specific immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of human donors immunized with pertussis vaccine; used for the prophylaxis and treatment of pertussis.
rabies immune globulin  a specific immune globulin derived from blood plasma or serum of human donors who have been immunized with rabies vaccine and have high titers of rabies antibody; used as a passive immunizing agent.
respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous  a preparation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from pooled adult human plasma selected for high titers of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus; used for passive immunization of infants and young children.
Rh0(D) immune globulin  a specific immune globulin derived from human blood plasma containing antibody to the erythrocyte factor Rh0(D); used to prevent Rh-sensitization of Rh-negative females and thus prevent erythroblastosis fetalis in subsequent pregnancies; administered within 72 hours after exposure to Rh-positive blood resulting from delivery of an Rh-positive child, abortion or miscarriage of an Rh-positive fetus, or transfusion of Rh-positive blood; also used to stimulate the platelet count in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
serum globulins  all plasma proteins except albumin, which is not a globulin, and fibrinogen, which is not in the serum; they are subdivided into α-, β-, and γ-globulins.
sex hormone–binding globulin  (SHBG) a β in plasma that binds to and transports testosterone, and to a lesser degree estrogens.
specific immune globulin  a preparation of immune globulin derived from a donor pool preselected for a high antibody titer against a specific antigen.
tetanus immune globulin  a specific immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of human donors who have been immunized with tetanus toxoid; used in the prophylaxis and treatment of tetanus.
varicella-zoster immune globulin  (VZIG) a specific immune globulin derived from plasma of human donors with high titers of varicella-zoster antibodies; used as a passive immunizing agent.

globulin

(glŏb′yə-lĭn)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are widespread in blood plasma, milk, muscle, and plant seeds and that are insoluble in pure water but soluble in dilute salt solutions.

globulin

[glob′yoo͡lin]
one of a broad category of simple proteins classified by solubility, electrophoretic mobility, and molecular weights. Compare albumin. See also euglobulin, plasma protein.

globulin

Globular protein Lab medicine An older term which now correspond to immunoglobulins, enzymes and other proteins. See Antithymocyte globulin, Core-lipopolysaccharide immune globulin, Human milk fat globulin, Hyaline globulin, Hyperimmune globulin, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin D, Immunoglobulin E, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin heavy chain, Immunoglobulin light chain, Immunoglobulin M, Intravenous immune globulin, Macroglobulin, Mammoglobin, Microglobulin, Monoclonal immunoglobulin, Polyspecific anti-human globulin, Pyroglobulin, Rh immune globulin, Sex hormone binding globulin, Specific immune globulin, Thyroxin-binding globulin.

glob·u·lin

(glob'yū-lin)
A family of proteins precipitated from plasma by ammonium sulfate. Globulins may be further fractionated by solubility, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and other separation methods into many subgroups, the main groups being α-, β-, and γ-globulin; including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, gluco- or mucoproteins, and metal-binding and metal-transporting proteins.

globulin

a group of proteins that are soluble in salt solution and coagulated by heat. They occur in blood plasma and antibodies, and are the main proteins of plant seeds.

globulin

soluble plasma proteins; subgroups include alpha-, beta- and gamma-immunoglobulins (see immunoglobulin)

glob·u·lin

(glob'yū-lin)
Name for a family of proteins precipitated from plasma (or serum) by half-saturation with ammonium sulfate. The main groups are α-, β-, and γ-globulin, which contain most antibodies.

globulin (glob´yəlin),

n a class of proteins.
globulin, antihemophilic,
globulin, antihemophilic A,
globulin, antihemophilic B,

globulin

a general term for proteins that are insoluble in water or highly concentrated salt solutions but soluble in moderately concentrated salt solutions. All plasma proteins except albumin and prealbumin are globulins. The plasma globulins can be separated into five fractions by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE). In order of decreasing electrophoretic mobility these fractions are the alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 globulins, and the gamma globulins.
The globulins include carrier proteins, which transport specific substances; acute phase reactants, which are involved in the inflammatory process; clotting factors; complement components; and immunoglobulins. Examples are transferrin, a beta1 globulin that transports iron, and alpha1-antitrypsin, an acute phase reactant that inhibits serum proteases. The gamma globulin fraction is almost entirely composed of immunoglobulins.

accelerator globulin
a substance present in plasma, but not in serum, that functions in the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic thromboplastin; called also clotting factor V.
antihemophilic globulin (AHG)
clotting factor VIII.
antilymphocyte globulin (ALG)
a substance used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, usually in combination with immunosuppressive drugs; it is the gamma globulin fraction of antilymphocyte serum.
immune globulin
a sterile solution containing antibodies normally present in blood, derived from donor animals, sometimes after hyperimmunization with certain microorganisms; used for passive immunization against some infectious diseases and in the treatment of gamma globulin deficiency.
serum globulin
the fraction of proteins precipitated from blood serum by half saturation with ammonium sulfate; the principal groups include the α-, β- and γ-globulins.