falciparum might have a key role in antigenic variation.
Nevertheless, evidence has been found that different RIFINs are being expressed on different parasite lines indicating that rif genes might have an additional role in antigenic variation and in immune evasion as well (26).
and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Immunol Cell Biol.
Barbour ACt Antigenic variation of a relapsing fever Borrelia species.
Barbour ACt Borrelia species and antigenic variation.
The ability of these spirochetes to undergo antigenic variation
is well documented (25).
Extreme Intrasubtypic Antigenic Variation
and the Pseudopandemic of 1947 (H1N1)
Influenza: epidemic patterns and antigenic variation
between CTFV strains is low, especially between strains from humans (21).
Of concem when these methods are used for characterizing these spirochetes is the organisms' ability to undergo multiphasic antigenic variation
, which can be associated with large inter- or intraplasmidic recombinations/duplications (7,8).
Differences in glycosylation have been shown to contribute to antigenic variation
by preventing antibody binding to antigenic sites (15).