T-lymphocyte count <100 cells/[micro]l are recommended to be screened for cryptococcal antigenaemia.
Screening for Cryptococcal Antigenaemia Among Patients in an Antiretroviral Treatment Program in South Africa.
Resurgence in filarial transmission after withdrawal of mass drug administration and the interrelationship between antigenaemia
and microfilaraemia--a longitudinal study.
Interpretation & conclusions: Annual single dose of DEC therapy alone may not result in complete clearance of infection and detection of antigenaemia
rather than microfilaraemia may be taken into consideration as an indicator of successful chemotherapy.
MCGN is thought to result from chronic antigenaemia
with defects in elimination or clearing of foreign antigen.
HCMV disease was proven in these patients by either a positive pp65 antigenaemia
assay (10,11) or highly sensitive nested PCR for mtr II region (11,12) of HCMV or by both.
11) Screening HIV-infected patients at risk for cryptococcal infection with the serum CrAg test remains an unresolved issue, especially related to management of patients with isolated positive antigenaemia
in bubonic plague patients, a marker of gravity and efficacy of therapy.
A simple cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assay (LFA) is now commercially available for more accurate, rapid and potentially point-of-care diagnosis of CM and asymptomatic antigenaemia
10) In two South African ART cohorts, the prevalence of incident antigenaemia
among patients with a CD4+ T-lymphocyte count <100 cells/[micro]l was 4% and 7% respectively.
22) If identified prospectively, such patients could be given 'pre-emptive' treatment to prevent progression from cryptococcal antigenaemia
to life-threatening meningitis.
Reasons for false-negative results include: reduced level of parasites in circulating blood; (5,9) decreased antigenaemia
post-treatment of patients; poor end-user interpretation of weak positive results; low levels of antigens at early stages of infection, with presence of only sexual stages of the parasites; a variant HRPII antigen, not captured by the monoclonal antibodies of the ICT Pf testing system; anti-HRPII-Pf antibody potentially blocked immuno-detection by the ICT Pf testing system; and the occurrence of antigen-accelerated HRPII antigen clearance.