anticoagulant therapy


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Related to anticoagulant therapy: anticoagulant drugs

anticoagulant

 [an″te-, an″ti-ko-ag´u-lant]
1. serving to prevent the coagulation of blood.
2. any substance that, in vivo or in vitro, suppresses, delays, or nullifies coagulation of the blood.
anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution citrate phosphate dextrose adenine.
anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose solution citrate phosphate dextrose.
anticoagulant therapy the therapeutic use of anticoagulants to discourage formation of blood clots within a blood vessel. Its main purpose is preventive; however, thrombolytic action of an anticoagulant can destroy a clot and thereby improve the condition of the ischemic tissue supplied by the affected vessel. Conditions in which this therapy is used include occlusive vascular disease, such as coronary occlusion, cerebrovascular and venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. It is administered prophylactically when major surgery is planned for a patient with a history of arterial stasis, and for patients who must be immobilized for a prolonged period of time.

Anticoagulant agents include those that interfere with the formation of clots (antithrombotics), such as heparin and the coumarin compounds, and those that are capable of disintegrating thrombi that have already formed (thrombolytics), such as streptokinase and urokinase. A third group of anticoagulants, the antiplatelet agents, prevent the clumping together of platelets, a primary step in the formation of thrombi, especially in the cerebrovascular system. These agents are classified as antithrombocytics and are not to be confused with or used as a substitute for other types of anticoagulants.
Patient Care. The major difficulties that may arise during the course of anticoagulant therapy are hemorrhage and drug interaction. Observation of the patient for early signs of internal as well as external spontaneous bleeding is of primary importance. Health care personnel responsible for the care of these patients must be knowledgeable about the various laboratory tests and interpretation of their results in the administration of anticoagulant drugs and in assessment of the patient.

The effects of anticoagulants can be enhanced or inhibited by a variety of drugs and chemical compounds, especially the salicylates, barbiturates, and antibiotics. Ambulatory patients must be cautioned against taking any other drugs in combination with an anticoagulant agent without first consulting with the health care provider who prescribed the drug. This includes nonprescription or “over-the-counter” drugs as well as prescription drugs. Dietary restrictions such as fasting diets or those that limit the intake or utilization of the fat-soluble vitamin K can result in increased pharmacologic action of an anticoagulant.

The patient and family should be given adequate instruction in the purposes of anticoagulant therapy, the effects and side effects of other drugs and dietary intake on anticoagulant agents, and the need for regular contact with members of the health care team so that adequate monitoring of the patient's status can be continued as long as the patient is receiving an anticoagulant.

Instruction of the patient and significant others should include prevention of accidental injury, basic first aid measures to control bleeding should an accident occur, the danger signs that warrant immediate medical attention, and assurance that bleeding can be controlled. A Medic Alert bracelet should be worn to alert health care professionals in an emergency situation that the patient is taking anticoagulants.

Women of childbearing age need counseling about the effects of anticoagulants on contraceptive methods and reproduction. Those who are taking an anticoagulant for prevention of emboli cannot use oral contraceptives or an intrauterine device, which could cause endometrial bleeding. Should a patient think she is or desires to be pregnant, the primary care provider should be notified at once. Warfarin crosses the placental barrier and can cause fatal hemorrhage in the fetus. It can also enter the mother's milk and have an anticoagulant effect in the nursing baby. Heparin does not have these properties and can be substituted for warfarin when necessary.

therapy

 [ther´ah-pe]
activity therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the prescription of and assistance with specific physical, cognitive, social, and spiritual activities to increase the range, frequency, or duration of an individual's (or group's) activity.
aerosol therapy see aerosol therapy.
animal-assisted therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the purposeful use of animals to provide affection, attention, diversion, and relaxation.
anticoagulant therapy see anticoagulant therapy.
antineoplastic therapy see antineoplastic therapy.
antiplatelet therapy the use of platelet inhibitors such as aspirin, dipyridamole, or sulfinpyrazone, to inhibit platelet adhesion or aggregation and so prevent thrombosis, alter the course of atherosclerosis, or prolong vascular graft patency.
art therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitation of communication through drawings or other art forms.
aversion therapy (aversive therapy) a form of behavior therapy that uses aversive conditioning, pairing undesirable behavior or symptoms with unpleasant stimulation in order to reduce or eliminate the behavior of symptoms. The term is sometimes used synonymously with aversive conditioning.
behavior therapy see behavior therapy.
carbon dioxide–oxygen therapy see carbon dioxide–oxygen therapy.
chest physical therapy see under physical therapy.
client-centered therapy a form of psychotherapy in which the emphasis is on the patient's self-discovery, interpretation, conflict resolution, and reorganization of values and life approach, which are enabled by the warm, nondirective, unconditionally accepting support of the therapist, who reflects and clarifies the patient's discoveries.
cognitive therapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy) a directive form of psychotherapy based on the theory that emotional problems result from distorted attitudes and ways of thinking that can be corrected. Using techniques drawn in part from behavior therapy, the therapist actively seeks to guide the patient in altering or revising negative or erroneous perceptions and attitudes.
collapse therapy a formerly common treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in which the diseased lung was collapsed in order to immobilize it and allow it to rest. pneumonolysis and thoracoplasty are methods still sometimes used to collapse a lung and allow access during thoracic surgery.
combined modality therapy treatment of cancer using two or more types of therapy, such as with chemoradiotherapy. Called also multimodality therapy.
compression therapy treatment of venous insufficiency, varicose veins, or venous ulceration of the lower limbs by having the patient wear compressing garments such as support hose.
continuous renal replacement therapy hemodialysis or hemofiltration done 24 hours a day for an extended period, usually in a critically ill patient.
convulsive therapy treatment of mental disorders, primarily depression, by induction of convulsions. The type almost universally used now is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), in which the convulsions are induced by electric current. In the past, drugs were sometimes used.
couples therapy marital t.
diet therapy treatment of disease by regulation of the diet.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (electroshock therapy) see electroconvulsive therapy.
endocrine therapy treatment of disease by means of hormones; called also hormonal or hormone therapy.
estrogen replacement therapy administration of an estrogen to treat estrogen deficiency, such as that occurring after menopause; there are a number of indications, including the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and coronary artery disease, and the prevention and treatment of vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and of thinning of the skin and vaginal epithelium, atrophic vaginitis, and vulvar atrophy. In women with a uterus, a progestational agent is usually included to prevent endometrial hyperplasia. Called also hormone replacement therapy.
exercise therapy: ambulation in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of and assistance with walking to maintain or restore autonomic and voluntary body functions during treatment and recovery from illness or injury.
exercise therapy: balance in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as use of specific activities, postures, and movements to maintain, enhance, or restore balance.
exercise therapy: joint mobility in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of active or passive body movement to maintain or restore joint flexibility.
exercise therapy: muscle control in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of specific activity or exercise protocols to enhance or restore controlled body movement.
family therapy
1. group therapy of the members of a family, exploring and improving family relationships and processes, understanding and modifying home influences that contribute to mental disorder in one or more family members, and improving communication and collective, constructive methods of problem-solving.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assisting family members to move their family toward a more productive way of living.
gold therapy chrysotherapy.
group therapy see group therapy.
helium-oxygen therapy see helium-oxygen therapy.
hemodialysis therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of extracorporeal passage of the patient's blood through a hemodialyzer. See also hemodialysis.
hemofiltration therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as cleansing of acutely ill patient's blood via a hemofilter controlled by the patient's hydrostatic pressure. See also hemofiltration.
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the aggressive use of extremely potent antiretroviral agents in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
hormonal therapy (hormone therapy) endocrine therapy.
hormone replacement therapy the administration of hormones to correct a deficiency; usually used to denote estrogen replacement therapy occurring after menopause.
host modulating therapy efforts to control periodontal disease by directly targeting the host response; an example is the use of drugs that do this, such as sub-antimicrobial doses of doxycycline, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or bisphosphonates.
humidification therapy (humidity therapy) the therapeutic use of air supersaturated with water to prevent or correct a moisture deficit in the respiratory tract; see also humidity therapy.
immunosuppressive therapy therapeutic immunosuppression.
inhalation therapy the term formerly used for respiratory care (def. 3).
intravenous therapy (IV therapy) in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration and monitoring of intravenous infusions of fluids and medications.
leech therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the application of medicinal leeches to help drain replanted or transplanted tissue engorged with venous blood.
marital therapy a type of family therapy aimed at understanding and treating one or both members of a couple in the context of a distressed relationship, but not necessarily addressing the discordant relationship itself. In the past, the term has also been used in a narrower sense to mean what is defined as marriage therapy, but that is increasingly considered a subset of marital therapy. Called also couples therapy.
marriage therapy a subset of marital therapy that focuses specifically on the bond of marriage between two people, enhancing and preserving it.
milieu therapy
1. treatment, usually in a psychiatric treatment center, that emphasizes the provision of an environment and activities appropriate to the patient's emotional and interpersonal needs.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of people, resources, and events in the patient's immediate environment to promote optimal psychosocial functioning.
multimodality therapy combined modality therapy.
music therapy
1. the use of music to effect positive changes in the psychological, physical, cognitive, or social functioning of individuals with health or educational problems. Music therapy is used for a wide variety of conditions, including mental disorders, developmental and learning disabilities, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions related to aging, brain injury, substance abuse, and physical disability. It is also used for the management of acute and chronic pain and for the reduction of stress.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as using music to help achieve a specific change in behavior or feeling.
neoadjuvant therapy in single-agent therapy or combined modality therapy for cancer, initial use of one modality, such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy, to decrease tumor burden prior to use of another modality, usually surgery.
nutrition therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration of food and fluids to support metabolic processes of a patient who is malnourished or at high risk for becoming malnourished. See also nutrition.
occupational therapy see occupational therapy.
optometric vision therapy a treatment plan prescribed to correct or improve specific dysfunctions of the vision system; it includes, but is not limited to, the treatment of strabismus (turned eye), other dysfunctions of binocularity (eye teaming), amblyopia (lazy eye), accommodation (eye focusing), ocular motor function (general eye movement ability), and visual-motor and visual-perceptual abilities.
oral rehydration therapy (ORT) oral administration of a solution of electrolytes and carbohydrates in the treatment of dehydration.
oxygen therapy see oxygen therapy.
peritoneal dialysis therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration and monitoring of dialysis solution into and out of the peritoneal cavity. See also peritoneal dialysis.
physical therapy see physical therapy.
play therapy see play therapy.
pulp canal therapy root canal therapy.
PUVA therapy [psoralen + ultraviolet A], a form of photochemotherapy for skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo; oral psoralen administration is followed two hours later by exposure to ultraviolet a radiation.
radiation therapy see radiation therapy.
recreation therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the purposeful use of recreation to promote relaxation and enhancement of social skills.
reminiscence therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as using the recall of past events, feelings, and thoughts to facilitate pleasure, quality of life, or adaptation to present circumstances.
renal replacement therapy therapy such as hemodialysis or transplantation that takes the place of nonfunctioning kidneys. See also continuous renal replacement therapy.
replacement therapy treatment to replace deficient formation or loss of body products by administration of the natural body products or synthetic substitutes. See also replacement. Called also substitution therapy.
respiratory therapy respiratory care.
root canal therapy that aspect of endodontics dealing with the treatment of diseases of the dental pulp, consisting of partial (pulpotomy) or complete (pulpectomy) extirpation of the diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty root canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive sealing material, and obturation of the canal with a nonirritating hermetic sealing agent. Called also pulp canal therapy.
shock therapy obsolete term for convulsive therapy.
simple relaxation therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of techniques to encourage and elicit relaxation for the purpose of decreasing undesirable signs and symptoms such as pain, muscle tension, or anxiety.
speech therapy the use of special techniques for correction of speech disorders.
substitution therapy replacement therapy.
swallowing therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitating swallowing and preventing complications of impaired swallowing.
thrombolytic therapy the administration of drugs for thrombolysis (dissolution of a thrombus in an artery), to reduce the size of occlusion and thereby reduce damage to muscular tissue; the coronary artery is a commonly used site. Agents commonly used are streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA).
thyroid replacement therapy treatment of hypothyroidism by administration of thyroxine, usually in the form of levothyroxine sodium. Called also thyrotherapy.
ultraviolet therapy see ultraviolet therapy.

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant ther·a·py

the use of anticoagulant drugs to reduce or prevent intravascular or intracardiac clotting.

anticoagulant therapy

Etymology: Gk, anti + L, coagulare, to curdle; Gk, therapeia
the use of drugs that suppress blood clot formation (thrombosis) and propagation. In patients who have experienced thrombotic events, anticoagulant therapy is used to prevent secondary coronary thrombosis, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular occlusion, thrombophlebitis, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants are administered prophylactically subsequent to orthopedic surgery and in atrial fibrillation.

anticoagulant therapy

Hematology The use of anticoagulants to prevent intravascular clot formation, or dissolve clots that have already formed Indications DVT/thrombophlebitis, CAD, TIA/stroke, dysrhythmia, prosthetic heart valve, cancer Monitoring Serial measurement of PT, PTT. See Heparin, tPA, Warfarin.

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant ther·a·py

(an'tē-kō-ag'yŭ-lănt thār'ă-pē)
Use of anticoagulant drugs to reduce or prevent intravascular or intracardiac clotting.

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant ther·a·py

(an'tē-kō-ag'yŭ-lănt thār'ă-pē)
Use of anticoagulant drugs to reduce or prevent intravascular or intracardiac clotting.

therapy

the treatment of disease; therapeutics. See also treatment.

animal-assisted therapy
the treatment of humans, usually for mental or psychological illness, which incorporates familiarization with a companion or pleasure animal. Called also pet-facilitated or pet-assisted therapy. See also animal facilitated therapy.
anticoagulant therapy
the use of drugs to render the blood sufficiently incoagulable to discourage thrombosis.
heat therapy
see hyperthermia (2).
immunosuppressive therapy
treatment with agents, such as x-rays, corticosteroids and cytotoxic chemicals, which suppress the immune response to antigen(s); used in organ transplantation, autoimmune disease, allergy, multiple myeloma, etc.
inhalation therapy
see aerosol.
neoadjuvant therapy
given before the primary treatment, such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy.
oxygen therapy
the administration of supplemental oxygen to relieve hypoxemia and prevent damage to the tissue cells as a result of oxygen lack (hypoxia). See also oxygen therapy.
physical therapy
use of physical agents and methods in rehabilitation and restoration of normal bodily function after illness or injury; it includes massage and manipulation, therapeutic exercises, hydrotherapy, and various forms of energy (electrotherapy, actinotherapy and ultrasound). See also physical therapist.
radiation therapy
treatment of disease by means of ionizing radiation. See also radiotherapy.
replacement therapy
treatment to replace deficient formation or loss of body products by administration of the natural body products or synthetic substitutes.
serum therapy
serotherapy; treatment of disease by injection of serum from immune animals.
substitution therapy
the administration of a hormone to compensate for glandular deficiency.
vaporization therapy
see aerosol.
References in periodicals archive ?
The decompressive surgery was effective in this case of the retroperitoneal hematoma caused by cardioversion and anticoagulant therapy.
The nurses allowed four days to go by during the most critical time of the resident's anticoagulant therapy conversion from subcutaneous heparin to oral Coumadin.
Recommended therapeutic range for oral anticoagulant therapy * Indication INR Treatment of venous thrombosis 2.
Survey results suggest that neurologists may be more knowledgeable than other physicians about the value of carotid endarterectomy and anticoagulant therapy in preventing strokes (Goldstein, Bonito, Matchar, et al.
The current primary treatment for PE is anticoagulant therapy, which relies upon long-term oral therapy with vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin.
The Praxbind labeling recommends patients resume their anticoagulant therapy as soon as medically appropriate, as determined by their health care provider.
Oral anticoagulant therapy was offered to all STROKESTOP participants found to have untreated AF.
When significant systematic differences exist, instruments should not be used interchangeably for management of oral anticoagulant therapy.
In the absence of controlled trials, it is difficult to make reliable recommendations about optimal anticoagulant therapy in pregnant patients with mechanical prosthetic valves.
15) LMWH is also given for the first few days of oral anticoagulant therapy.
21) The anticoagulant therapy of choice is usually a course of IV unfractionated heparin or subcutaneous low mo lecular weight heparin (LMWH), followed by oral warfarin therapy.
While on oral anticoagulant therapy, 31 patients experienced hemorrhages.

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