antibiotic drugs


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antibiotic drugs

A very extensive range of drugs able to kill or prevent reproduction of bacteria in the body without killing the patient. Antibiotics were originally derived from cultures of living organisms, such as fungi or bacteria, but, today, many are chemically synthesized. The antibiotics have enormously extended the scope and effectiveness of medical therapy against bacterial infection, but have not succeeded in eliminating any bacterial diseases. The extensive, and not always judicious, use of antibiotics has led to widespread evolutionary changes in bacteria in response to their new environment, manifested by the acquisition, by natural selection, of resistance to these drugs. This forces researchers to produce ever new and more effective antibiotics. The antibiotics include such classes as the aminoglycosides, amphenicols, ansamycins, lincosamides, macrolides, polypeptides, tetracyclines and beta-lactams. The beta-lactams include groups such as carbapenems, cephalosporins, cephamycins, monobactams, oxacephems and penicillins.

antibiotic

1. destructive of life.
2. a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in dilute solutions, to kill (biocidal activity) or inhibit the growth (biostatic activity) of other microorganisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. See also antimicrobial.
3. used as feed additives to animals as growth promotants.

anthracycline a's
a group of antibiotics which have a tetracycline ring structure substituted with the sugar daunosamine. Includes the antineoplastic drugs doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
antineoplastic antibiotic
bactericidal antibiotic
one that kills bacteria.
bacteriostatic antibiotic
one that suppresses the growth of bacteria.
broad-spectrum antibiotic
one that is effective against a wide range of bacteria.
antibiotic detection
on-farm and prepackaged laboratory tests available for testing farm products and animal tissues and fluids for antibiotic residues.
antibiotic drugs
the range includes the following groups: penicillin, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, macrolide, nitrofuran, cephalosporins, and a miscellaneous group including bacitracin, tyrothricin, polymyxin, colistin.
antibiotic feed additives
see feed additives.
first generation antibiotic
one produced as a natural product, e.g. penicillin G. See second generation antibiotic (below).
antibiotic food preservation
is a satisfactory technique but very strictly controlled because of the problem of residues in the food. Used mostly for the preservation of fish.
antibiotic-induced diarrhea
see pseudomembranous colitis, acute undifferentiated diarrhea of the horse.
antibiotic residue in food
in human food of animal origin is a seriously regarded pollution in public health surveillance. The residues may arise from systemic administration, or even after absorption from a local site such as the uterus, but the most serious contamination arises from milk from quarters that have been treated for mastitis. It is essential for the safety of the human population, the financial well-being of the farmer and the professional reputation of the veterinarian that antibacterial withdrawal times are observed.
antibiotic resistance
see antimicrobial resistance.
second generation antibiotic
produced by manipulation of the molecular structure of a first generation antibiotic (see above) so that the metabolism and pharmacodynamics of the original compound are significantly altered.
antibiotic sensitivity test
see antimicrobial sensitivity test.
antibiotic therapy
antibiotics vary in their absorption from the alimentary tract, requiring some, e.g. streptomycin, to be given parenterally for systemic effect, freedom from toxicity, the range of bacteria against which they are effective, their capacity to stimulate resistance and whether they are bacteriostatic or bactericidal in their effects. Selection of the most suitable antibiotic to suit a particular circumstance may be guided by an antimicrobial sensitivity test, knowledge of the infection present and the price of the drug. In many instances, because of lack of knowledge of the infection present it is necessary to choose an agent with a broad antibacterial spectrum.
antibiotic withdrawal, antibiotic withholding
see antibacterial withdrawal time.
References in periodicals archive ?
Veterinarians began using antibiotics to treat animals soon after penicillin and other antibiotic drugs were discovered in the 1930s.
PMX-30063, PolyMedix's lead antibiotic compound, is a small molecule that mimics human host-defense proteins and has a mechanism of action distinct from those of current antibiotic drugs, a mechanism which is intended to make bacterial resistance unlikely to develop.
Like rivals on the gridiron, superbugs and antibiotic drugs are battling for supremacy, but this is no game," said APHA member Gail Hansen, DVM, MPH, senior officer at the Pew Charitable Trust.
By ISLAMABAD, May 21, 2011 (Balochistan Times): The health authorities have been urged to take drastic measures to check abuse of antibiotic drugs in the country.
Patients sometimes ask their health care professional to prescribe antibiotic drugs for viral infections, like the common cold, despite the fact that they will not work and may lead to potentially harmful side effects.
The team led by Professor Timor Baasov of the Technion Faculty of Chemistry have modified existing aminoglycoside antibiotic drugs, and carefully monitored biological and toxicity tests of the resulting derivatives.
Antibiotic drugs are used to treat it and recovery can take several weeks.
Returning pilgrims were asked if the symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection had occurred and if antibiotic drugs were taken during the pilgrimage, specifically a single dose of ciprofloxacin.
50Years Ago Investigations carried out by the Medical Research Council team at Birmingham Accident Hospital on the use of modern antibiotic drugs in the treatment of severe burns are showing valuable results.
Antimicrobial resistance: Feeding massive doses of antibiotic drugs to healthy animals--more than 11 million kg (24 million pounds) per year in the United States alone--is threatening human health by undermining our arsenal of disease-fighting drugs, according to a January 2001 report by the Union of Concerned Scientists.
This may lead to deadly infections that no antibiotic drugs can overcome.
And their use has skyrocketed in Europe and America in recent years, due primarily to concerns about booming health care costs and fears over the side effects of conventional medicines According to Health and Nutrition Breakthroughs, the overuse of antibiotics in Western medicine has also encouraged a revival of herbal remedies, as more and more bacterial strains become immune to antibiotic drugs.