Kuo) were also observed to produce 32-spermatozoid antheridia (Huang et al.
Antheridia with jackets of [greater than or equal to] 5 cells have been described in most early leptosporangiate ferns, such as Osmundaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, and some tree ferns (Chen et al.
They were periodically examined to record the onset of spore germination, the growth of gametophytes, the formation of antheridia and archegonia, and the onset of the development of sporophytes.
Prothalli of all three species produced antheridia (Fig.
Significant differences in the number of antheridia per antheridium-bearing gametophyte were detected only when corrected for thallus area (Table 4, Fig.
1992) observed antheridia only after, or corresponding to, the formation of a cordate morphology.
were difficult to see on the living gametophytes without the use of a dissecting microscope at high magnification (Fig.
formed in small numbers and on some prothalli just one antheridium was observed (Fig.
Although it has been said that the normal sequence of gametangia development in the lepotsporangiate ferns begins with the antheridia
and continues with the archegonia (Atkinson and Stokey, 1964; Nayar and Kaur, 1971), there are many deviations reported.
Hermaphrodites contain archegonia, antheridia
, and a notch meristem, giving them a mitten-shaped appearance, whereas males contain antheridia
, and are essentially oval (Banks, 1997).
sellowiana bearing antheridia
only after 170 days cultivation, but they did not observe gametophytes bearing archegonia.
developed on the lower half of the prothallus, marginal and/or superficial in position (Fig.