anterior teeth


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tooth

 [to̳th] (pl. teeth)
one of the small bonelike structures of the jaws for biting and mastication of food; they also help in the shaping of sounds and forming of words in speech.

Structure. The portion of a tooth that rises above the gum is the crown; the portion below is the root. The crown is covered by enamel, which is related to the epithelial tissue of the skin and is the hardest substance in the human body. The surface of the root is composed of a bonelike tissue called cementum. Underneath the surface enamel and cementum is a substance called dentin, which makes up the main body of the tooth. Within the dentin, in a space in the center of the tooth, is the dental pulp, a soft, sensitive tissue that contains nerves and blood and lymph vessels. The cementum, dentin, and pulp are formed from connective tissue.
Typical deciduous teeth.
Typical permanent teeth.
(See color plates.)

Covering the root of the tooth and holding it in place in its alveolus (socket) in the jaw is a fibrous connective tissue called the periodontium. Its many strong fibers are embedded in the cementum and also the wall of the tooth socket. The periodontium not only helps hold the tooth in place but also acts to cushion it against the pressure caused by biting and chewing.

There are 20 primary teeth, called also deciduous teeth, baby teeth, or milk teeth, which are eventually replaced by 32 permanent teeth, evenly divided between the upper and lower jaws.

Teeth have different shapes because they have different functions. The incisors, in the front of the mouth, are shaped like a cone with a sharp flattened end, and cut the food. There are eight deciduous and permanent incisors, four upper and four lower. The canines (or cuspids) are at the corners of the mouth and are shaped like simple cones; they tear and shred food. There are four permanent canines; the two in the upper jaw are popularly known as the “eye teeth.” The premolars (or bicuspids) are next behind the cuspids and consist of two cones, or cusps, fused together; they tear, crush, and grind the food. There are eight permanent premolars. The molars are in the back of the mouth; they have between three and five cusps each, and their function is to crush and grind food. There are 12 permanent molars in all, three on each side of both the upper and lower jaw. The hindmost molar in each of these groups, and the last one to emerge, is popularly known as the wisdom tooth.
Development and Eruption. Both the primary teeth and the permanent teeth begin to develop before birth. Because of this, it is vitally important that expectant mothers receive foods that will supply the calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins necessary for healthy teeth. The primary teeth begin to form about the sixth week of prenatal life, with calcification beginning about the sixteenth week. A considerable part of the crowns of these teeth is formed by the time the child is born. Eruption, or cutting of teeth, is slower in some children than others, but the primary teeth generally begin to appear when the infant is between 6 and 9 months of age, and the process is completed by the age of 2 to 2½ years.



When the child is about 6, the first permanent molar comes in just behind the second molar of the primary teeth. About the same time, shedding of primary teeth begins. The permanent teeth form in the jaw even before the primary ones have erupted, with the incisors and the canines beginning to calcify during the first 6 months of life. Calcification of the others takes place shortly after. As the adult teeth calcify, the roots of the primary ones gradually disappear, or resorb, and are completely gone by the time the permanent teeth are ready to appear. Occasionally a primary tooth root does not resorb, and as a result the permanent tooth comes in outside its proper position. When this happens, it is necessary to remove the primary tooth and root.

The first teeth to be shed, about the sixth year, are the central incisors. The permanent incisors erupt shortly afterward. The lateral incisors are lost and replaced during the seventh to ninth years, and the canines in the ninth to twelfth years. The first premolars generally appear between the ages of 10 and 12, the second molars between 11 and 13, and the third molars, or wisdom teeth, between 17 and 22. It is not uncommon for the third molars to fail to erupt.

Occasionally there is a partial or total lack of either the primary or the permanent teeth (anodontia). In some cases this is inherited, and in others it may be related to endocrine gland disturbances.
Tooth Decay and Its Prevention. Tooth decay, or dental caries, is the most common disease in the United States. It begins on the outside of the teeth in the enamel as bacteria and refined carbohydrates adhere to the tooth surface to form plaque. The action of the bacteria on starchy and sugary foods produces lactic acid, which is believed to dissolve the enamel. Once there is a break in the enamel (demineralization), the decaying process moves on into the dentin and then to the pulp, attacking the nerves and causing toothache. For methods of treatment and prevention, see dental caries.
accessional teeth the permanent molars, so called because they have no primary tooth predecessors in the dental arch. See also succedaneous teeth.
anterior teeth the teeth in the anterior parts of the dental arches; the incisors and canines.
avulsed tooth a tooth that has been traumatically dislocated, usually salvageable for a reimplantation if appropriate treatment is initiated promptly. Prior to treatment the tooth can be placed in the conscious patient's mouth or in ice water or cold milk. No attempt should be made to cleanse the tooth.
Hutchinson's teeth abnormal teeth seen in congenital syphilis, in which the permanent incisors have a screwdriver-like shape, sometimes associated with notching of the incisal edges.
impacted tooth one so placed in the jaw that it is unable to erupt or to attain its normal position in occlusion. See also dental impaction.
intruded tooth a tooth that has been forcefully pushed into the patient's gums and may appear to be absent; it will usually return to the normal position within one month.
posterior teeth the teeth in the posterior parts of the dental arches; the premolars and molars.
succedaneous teeth (successional teeth) the permanent teeth that have primary tooth predecessors in the dental arch. See also accessional teeth.
wisdom tooth the third molar, the tooth most distal to the medial line on either side in each jaw; so called because it is the last of the permanent dentition to erupt, usually at the age of 17 to 21 years.

anterior teeth

The front teeth, which includes the central and lateral incisors and cuspids.

teeth

small, bonelike structures of the jaws for the biting and mastication of food. Plural of tooth. See also dental, tooth.

teeth abscess
see alveolar1 abscess, malar abscess.
accessional teeth
the permanent molars, so called because they have no deciduous predecessors in the dental arch.
anelodont teeth
teeth with a limited period of growth.
anterior teeth
usually taken to include incisors and canines.
teeth attrition
see dental attrition.
baby teeth
see deciduous teeth (below).
brachyodont teeth
a type of dentition as seen in humans and pigs; the teeth have short crowns, well developed roots and a narrow root canal. See also hypsodont, bunodont.
bunodont teeth
canine teeth
the long, pointed tooth in the interdental space between incisors and cheek teeth; there is one in each jaw on both sides.
carnassial teeth
teeth cavity
see dental cavity, pulp cavity.
deciduous teeth
the temporary set of teeth that erupt in the young and are shed before or near maturity. They have smaller crowns and root systems and are fewer in number than the permanent teeth that replace them. Called also milk teeth, temporary teeth, baby teeth. Occasionally, particularly in small breeds of dogs, shedding of the deciduous tooth may not occur when the permanent replacement has erupted, necessitating veterinary intervention.
Enlarge picture
Retained deciduous canine tooth in a dog.
diphyodont teeth
displaced molar teeth
see inherited displacement of molar teeth.
ectopic teeth
see dental cyst.
embedded teeth
unerupted.
congenital teeth enamel deficiency
see inherited enamel defect.
teeth eruption time
see Table 19.
teeth excessive wear
occurs in animals on high fluorine intake or on diets low in calcium.
geminous teeth
teeth grinding
1. grinding of the incisors to improve foraging ability. Has been done to sheep with an industrial angle grinder with indifferent results.
2. see bruxism.
heterodont teeth
homodont teeth
hypsodont teeth
a form of dentition, seen in horses and many ruminants; the crown is high (deep), the root is short.
impacted teeth
one so placed in the jaw that it is unable to erupt or to attain its normal position in occlusion.
incisor teeth
the front teeth used for cropping grass or rending flesh. From two to four in each quadrant, depending on the species, except that they are missing in the upper jaw of ruminants.
inherited molar teeth displacement
see inherited displacement of molar teeth.
lophodont teeth
cheek teeth with ridged occlusal surfaces. See also lophodont.
teeth maleruption
defective eruption; includes delayed eruption and more usually eruption out of its normal position.
milk teeth
see deciduous teeth (above).
molar teeth
the permanent, primary cheek teeth that are not preceded by premolars. They are typically big teeth used for grinding and with ridges on their occlusal surfaces (lophodont) in horses, worn rounded cusps (bunodont) in pigs, or including crescents (selenodont) in cattle, and either cutting edges or flattened areas in carnivores.
monophyodont teeth
needle teeth
any small sharp teeth in piglets but principally the canine teeth.
permanent teeth
see permanent dentition.
teeth pigmentation
see tetracycline stain.
pink teeth
caused by staining with porphyrin, or by deficiency of dentine and enamel, a congenital defect.
premature teeth loss
a problem in New Zealand sheep. Characterized by acute then chronic gingivitis, then periodontitis and loss of teeth. Cause unknown.
premolar teeth
cheek teeth present in both generations, found between the molars and canines. The first premolar is exceptional in humans because it erupts late and is never replaced. In domestic species, there are up to three or four deciduous, followed by up to four permanent premolars in both jaws and on both sides.
teeth rasp
see tooth rasp.
retained teeth
deciduous premolars or incisors may be retained even though the permanent teeth have erupted. The deciduous crowns are likely to protrude at odd angles and cause difficult mastication.
secodont teeth
sectorial teeth
a cutting tooth. See carnassial tooth.
selenodont teeth
teeth with crescents in their grinding surfaces, as in the cheek teeth of ruminants.
sharp teeth
the edges of molar teeth in the horse which require frequent rasping because of the injury that they might cause to the oral mucosa.
stained teeth
red-brown in inherited porphyrinuria in cattle, frequent dosing with tetracyclines, heavy staining with brown tartar in ruminants with a rumination and prehension problem, usually due to loss of anterior part of tongue.
supernumerary teeth
teeth in excess of the normal complement, e.g. double row of incisors. Called also polyodontia, heterotopic polydontia.
temporary teeth
see deciduous teeth (above).
wolf teeth
References in periodicals archive ?
Post-Obturation pain following one-visit and two-visit root canal treatment in necrotic anterior teeth.
The shade must be more precise for anterior teeth, so an assistant should compare different shades and consult with the dentist and the patient to agree on a shade.
For this reason, the ultrasonic scaler was used only to remove supragingivat calculus and stain from the mandibular anterior teeth.
There were no interferences in the anterior guidance apart from the contacts on the anterior teeth.
The reason that trauma was seen more in girls than in boys could be that a greater number of girls had proclined anterior teeth.
There is only one correct assemblage of the anterior XCP, and this assemblage allows one to image all anterior teeth.
A 15 year-old girl with FS presented to Bradford and Airedale Salaried Dental Services (SDS) complaining of painful lower anterior teeth.
Unfortunately the literature lacks evidence-based results for the management of such defects for the anterior teeth (Table 1b).
In the mandibular transverse dimension, a reduction in the anterior arch width was noted which can also be due to alignment of the mandibular anterior teeth.
In the region of the anterior teeth a marginal incision was used to expose the 4 supernumerary teeth (figure 5).
The patient's primary dental complaint was the appearance of her maxillary anterior teeth that she felt were small and spaced.

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