anoscopy


Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to anoscopy: colonoscopy

Anoscopy

 

Definition

An anoscopy is an examination of the rectum in which a small tube is inserted into the anus to screen, diagnose, and evaluate problems of the anus and anal canal.

Purpose

This test may be ordered for the evaluation of perianal or anal pain, hemorrhoids, rectal prolapse, digital rectal examination that shows a mass, perianal abscess and condyloma (a wart-like growth). An anascopy may be performed to check for abnormal openings between the anus and the skin, or anal fissures. The test is also used to diagnose rectal cancer.

Precautions

Anoscopy should not be performed on patients with acute cardiovascular problems due to the vasovagal reaction it may cause. This test is also not recommended for patients with acute abdominal problems and those with a constricted or narrowed anal canal.

Description

Anoscopy views the anus and anal canal by using an anoscope. An anoscope is a plastic, tube-shaped speculum that is a smaller version of a sigmoidscope. Before the anoscope is used, the doctor completes a digital rectal examination with a lubricated, gloved index finger. The anoscope is then lubricated and gently inserted a few inches into the rectum. This procedure enlarges the rectum to allow the doctor to view the entire anal canal with a light. If any suspicious areas are noticed, a piece of tissue can be biopsied.
During the anoscopy procedure there may be a feeling of pressure or the need to go to the bathroom. If a biopsy is taken, the patient may feel a slight pinch. The procedure is performed on an out-patient basis, and takes approximately an hour to complete.

Preparation

The patient will be instructed to clear their rectum of stool before the procedure. This may be done by taking a laxative, enema, or other preparation that may help with the evacuation.

Aftercare

If a biopsy is needed during an anoscopy, there may be slight anal bleeding for less than two days following the procedure. The patient may be instructed to sit in a bathtub of warm water for 10 to 15 minutes, three times a day, to help decrease the pain and swelling.

Risks

A simple anoscopy procedure offers minimal risks. There is a limited risk of bleeding and mild pain is a biopsy is performed.

Normal results

Normal values to look for during an anoscopy include an anal canal that appears healthy in size, color, and shape. The test also looks for no evidence of bleeding, polyps, hemorrhoids or other abnormalities.

Abnormal results

While an anoscopy is typically performed to determine is hemorrhoids are present, other abnormal finding could include polyps, abscesses, inflammation, fissures, colorectal polyps, or cancer.

Resources

Books

Altman, Roberta, and Michael J. Sarg. "Anoscopy." The Cancer Dictionary. Checkmark Books, 2000, p. 18.

Periodicals

Colyar, Margaret. "Anascopy Basics." The Nurse Practitioner (October 2000): 91.

Other

Discovery Health. "Medical Tests: Anoscopy." May 5, 2001. 〈http://health.discover.com/diseasesandcond/encyclopedia/1038.html〉.
Lycos Health with WebMD. "Anoscopy." May 5, 2001. 〈http://webmd.lycos.com/content/asset/adam_test_anoscopy〉.

Key terms

Anal fissure — An ulcer on the margin of the anus.
Digital rectal examination — An examination where a gloved, lubricated index finger is inserted into the rectum to check for any abnormalities.
Polyps — A tumor with a small flap that attaches itself to the wall of various vascular organs such as the nose, uterus and rectum. Polyps bleed easily, and if they are suspected to be cancerous they should be surgically removed.
Vasovagal reaction — Regarding the action of stimuli from the vagus nerve on blood vessels.

anoscopy

 [a-nos´kah-pe]
examination of the anal canal with an anoscope.

anoscopy

The use of an anoscope to directly visualise the anorectal mucosa and detect haemorrhoids, polyps, anal fissures and rectal bleeding of uncertain aetiology.

anoscopy

The use of an anoscope to directly visualize the anorectal mucosa, and detect hemorrhoids, polyps, anal fissures and rectal bleeding of uncertain etiology

anoscopy

examination of the anal canal with an anoscope.
References in periodicals archive ?
The 171 women who had high-resolution anoscopy had a median * age of 47.
If a patient has anal signs or symptoms that aren't readily explained by common conditions, clinicians should consider anal cancer as a possibility and, if there is concern, refer that patient to someone trained in high-resolution anoscopy.
Having recognized this trend, the National Cancer Institute's AIDS Malignancy Consortium requires baseline anal Pap screening and anoscopy as part of all its trial protocols, said Dr.
For example, the diagnostic lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, the proctosigmoidoscopy, and the anoscopy APGs are consolidated into the therapeutic lower GI endoscopy APG.
He added, "When HGAIN is diagnosed or treated and it is not possible to refer patients for HRA, then close follow-up with anoscopy and digital rectal examination performed every 4 to 6 months is appropriate.
High-resolution anoscopy if cytology indicates any abnormality.
Biopsies from the anoscopy were abnormal in 68% of patients: AIN 2+(25%) and AIN 1 (43%).
The next step is anoscopy with a standard plastic anoscope.
Any HIV+ person with an abnormal Pap smear should discuss having an anoscopy and tissue biopsy performed to rule out anal cancer or precancerous lesions.
Currently, intense screening with high-resolution anoscopy and cytology, and HPV testing with polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization are mainly limited to investigations in high-risk subpopulations such as HIV-positive homosexual men.
The follow-up for abnormal cytology represents the most difficult aspect of the programme, including getting patients to come for anoscopy.
Response was gauged by clinical assessment, photographs and measurement of all warts through high-resolution anoscopy.