anorexia


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Related to anorexia: bulimia, Eating disorders, Pro ana

anorexia

 [an″o-rek´se-ah]
lack or loss of appetite; appetite is psychological, dependent on memory and associations, as compared with hunger, which is physiologically aroused by the body's need for food. Anorexia can be brought about by subjectively unpleasant food, surroundings, or company, or emotional states such as anxiety, irritation, anger, or fear; it may also be a symptom of a physical disorder or emotional disturbance.
anorexia nervo´sa an eating disorder consisting of loss of appetite due to emotional states, such as anxiety, irritation, anger, and fear. In true anorexia nervosa there is no real loss of appetite, but rather a refusal to eat or an aberration in eating patterns; hence, the term anorexia is probably a misnomer. The clinical picture is usually that of a young woman who is obsessed with the idea of being thin and restricts her food intake to the point of danger; she may alternate fasting with periods of bingeing (bulimia). She often may be described as “a model child” with perfectionistic tendencies. A personal crisis often triggers the disorder.

The syndrome was first described more than 300 years ago and was once thought to be exceedingly rare. However, in recent years its incidence has been rapidly increasing throughout the world in developed countries as diverse as Russia, Japan, Australia, and the United States. The condition occurs mainly in girls after the age of puberty, and the prevalence may be as high as one in a hundred.
Cause. The cause of anorexia nervosa is unknown, but it is thought to be a complex of psychological, social, and biological factors. There are numerous theories, such as that the victim is attempting to control some aspects of life in an environment where it is difficult to exert control; that it is an attempt to manipulate others and gain attention; and social pressures, conflicting roles, and family disorders that serve as stimuli. Other theorists hypothesize that the disorder is a defense against sexual maturation, related to a fear of sexual intimacy. Society's obsession with physical appearance is also thought by some to play a role. Researchers are studying whether there could be a genetic component, as well as whether malfunction of the hypothalamus might play a role.
Symptoms. Criteria for diagnosis of anorexia nervosa identified by the American Psychiatric Association are as follows: (1) intense fear of becoming obese that does not diminish as weight loss progresses; (2) disturbance of body image, such as claiming to feel fat even when emaciated; (3) refusal to maintain body weight over a minimal normal weight for age and height; (4) no known physical illness that would account for the weight loss; and (5) amenorrhea in postmenarchal females. It is often accompanied by self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives and/or diuretics (see also bulimia nervosa) and extensive exercise. Accompanying physical signs in addition to profound weight loss include hypotension, bradycardia, edema, lanugo, metabolic changes, and endocrine disturbances.
Treatment. The treatment of anorexia nervosa is difficult and lengthy. The primary goals are restitution of normal nutrition and resolution of underlying psychological problems. Modes of therapy that can be used include behavior therapy, behavioral contracts, psychoanalysis, group therapy, insight-oriented therapy, and family therapy.

Nutritional counseling, social services and support, health education, and health care are all components in the physical and psychological recovery from an eating disorder. The physical sequelae, as well as the social and cultural aspects, require a multidisciplinary approach individualized to the unique needs of the victim and family. Inpatient treatment, either partial or complete, is required when the individual's problems warrant intensive services or if outpatient treatment is not successful. Some hospitals have special units for patients with eating disorders, providing an environment for treatment that emphasizes the simultaneous treatment of physiologic and psychological problems by professionals trained in the management of these patients. The American Psychological Association has identified numerous areas for research related to eating disorders.

Information and support for professionals as well as persons affected by the disorder can be obtained from the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders by writing to them at P.O. Box 7, Highland Park IL 60035 or calling their hotline at 1-847-831-3438.

an·o·rex·i·a

(an'ō-rek'sē-ă), Avoid substituting the simple word anorexia for anorexia nervosa.
Diminished appetite; aversion to food.
[G. fr. an- priv. + orexis, appetite]

anorexia

/an·orex·ia/ (-rek´se-ah) lack or loss of appetite for food.
anorexia nervo´sa  an eating disorder usually occurring in adolescent females, characterized by refusal to maintain a normal minimal body weight, fear of gaining weight or becoming obese, disturbance of body image, undue reliance on body weight or shape for self-evaluation, and amenorrhea. The two subtypes include one characterized by dieting and exercise alone and one also characterized by binge eating and purging.

anorexia

(ăn′ə-rĕk′sē-ə)
n.
1. Loss of appetite, especially as a result of disease.
2. Anorexia nervosa.

anorexia

[an′ōrek′sē·ə]
Etymology: Gk, a + orexis, not appetite
a lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat. The condition may result from poorly prepared or unattractive food or surroundings, unfavorable company, or various physical and psychological causes. Compare pseudoanorexia. See also anorexia nervosa.

an·o·rex·i·a

(an'ŏ-rek'sē-ă)
Diminished appetite; aversion to food.
[G. fr. an- priv. + orexis, appetite]

anorexia

Loss of appetite, especially as a result of disease. From the Greek an , not and orexis , appetite.

Anorexia

Eating disorder associated with extreme fluctuations and loss in body weight.

anorexia

lack of appetite for food; anorexia nervosa a psychological illness characterized by an avoidance of food intake leading to severe weight loss, associated with excessive exercising, purging and disturbance of body image; may involve intense fear of gaining weight even when it is already well below the norm for age and height. May disturb reproductive hormone function in young women, causing amenorrhoea. The sports most often associated include 'aesthetic sports' (e.g. diving, figure skating, gymnastics, synchronized swimming), those in which low body mass and low body fat appear to be a physical and biomechanical advantage (distance running, road cycling, triathlon) and those with weight categories for competition, (lightweight rowing, weight lifting, wrestling). anorexia athletica similarly disordered eating plus compulsive exercising.

anorexia,

n absence of the desire to eat, induced by psychological drugs or by social, environmental, or other factors.

an·o·rex·i·a

(an'ŏ-rek'sē-ă) Avoid substituting the simple word anorexia for anorexia nervosa.
Diminished appetite; aversion to food.
[G. fr. an- priv. + orexis, appetite]

anorexia (anōrek´sēə),

n the partial or complete loss of appetite for food.
anorexia nervosa,
n a psychoneurotic disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in women, emotional disturbance concerning body image, and an abnormal fear of becoming fat. See also disorder, body dysmorphic.

anorexia

lack or loss of appetite for food. Appetite is psychological, dependent on memory and associations, as compared with hunger, which is physiologically aroused by the body's need for food. Anorexia can be brought about by unattractive food, surroundings, or the presence of other animals. The existence of appetite in animals is assumed. For strictest accuracy the words aphagia, anophagia, etc. should be used but common usage includes anorexia, hyperorexia, etc. Called also inappetence.
References in periodicals archive ?
This article is an effort to address the significant lack of research and writings in regard to men in relationship with anorexia nervosa.
Although not underweight, this [ENDOS-Wt] group was more medically compromised in some outcomes than the anorexia nervosa group," Ms.
We have a family of eating disorders, the best known being anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorders and bulimia," said Jeremy Alfrod, a clinical psychologist and cognitive behavioral therapist.
Patients with anorexia have a range of social difficulties which often start in their early teenage years, before the onset of the illness," said Janet Treasure, a professor at King's College London's Institute of Psychiatry, who worked on two studies on the hormone published in science journals on Thursday.
There is currently a lack of effective pharmacological treatments for anorexia.
The project made use of genetic information from more than 1,200 anorexia patients and nearly 2,000 non-anorexic control subjects.
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It's about how difficult it is to deal with this stuff, especially for the friends and family of someone with anorexia.
5 percent of all females have anorexia nervosa at some point in their lives, and more than 90 percent of these are adolescent and young women.
US website Radar Online claims she is being treated for anorexia.
Yet the death rate from anorexia nervosa is more than 12 times higher than the annual death rate from all other causes combined for young women ages 15 to 24.