anoikis


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anoikis

A type of programmed cell death (apoptosis) that is induced by a loss of correct cell/extracellular matrix attachment. Cells require intact integrin family receptors to suppress anoikis, and the process requires mitochondrial membrane permeabilisation; certain cells (e.g., epithelial and endothelial cells) are more resistant to anoikis.

Anoikis resistance can be induced through activation of extracellular signalling-receptor kinase (ERK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling cascade by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Metastatic cells are resistant to anoikis and often have increased levels of the death receptor-inhibiting protein FLIP.

anoikis

(a-ny'-kis) [ ¹an- + Gr. oikia, house + -(s)is]
Programmed cell death occurring in epithelial cells. It is associated with loss of the normal ability to establish contacts between the cell and the extracellular matrix.
See: apoptosis

anoikis

a special form of APOPTOSIS, whereby cells undergo cell death after disruption of cell-matrix interactions. Anoikis ensures that cells are unable to survive in inappropriate locations. It occurs when epithelial cells (see EPITHELIUM are either not bound to the matrix via INTEGRINS or are bound via the wrong integrins. The process is also called detachment-induced cell death or suspension-induced apoptosis.
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References in periodicals archive ?
GRHL2 is a transcription factor playing roles in development, regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and restoring the sensitivity to anoikis (27).
Adrenergic modulation of focal adhesion kinase protects human ovarian cancer cells from anoikis.
Grape seed extract induces anoikis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells: possible role of ataxia telangiectasia mutated-p53 activation, Mol Cancer Ther.
Schafer, Coleman Assistant Professor of Cancer Biology at Notre Dame, metastasis, the spread of cancer from one organ to other parts of the body, relies on cancer cells ability to evade a cell death process called anoikis.
She describes the dynamics of the prostate gland; apoptosis pathways signaling execution of cancer cells; androgen receptor-mediated apoptosis; new concepts related to the development of resistance by androgen-independent tumors, in terms of the contribution of anoikis and cross-talk of androgens with key growth factor signaling pathways; epithelial-mesenchymal transition in metastasis; the exploitation of the apoptotic and angiogenic synergism towards complete eradication of tumors; novel molecular therapeutics; apoptotic-based molecular markers of therapeutic response; the role of apoptosis in cancer prevention; and the drug development challenge based on analysis of data from clinical trials.
Diindolylmethane-mediated Gli1 protein suppression induces anoikis in ovarian cancer cells in vitro and blocks tumor formation ability in vivo.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma cells resist anoikis as quiescent pluricellular aggregates.
Exogenous expression of [beta]-catenin regulates contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, anoikis, and radiation-induced cell cycle arrest.
This phenomenon, referred to as anoikis (homelessness), was assumed to prevent cells that have lost contact with their original surroundings, from establishing themselves at inappropriate locations.
CEACAM6 gene silencing impairs anoikis resistance and in vivo metastatic ability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.
Metformin inhibits growth and decreases resistance to anoikis in medullary thyroid cancer cells.
Anoikis is the process by which cells are triggered to die when separated from their surrounding matrix and neighbouring cells.