anencephaly


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

anencephaly

 [an″en-sef´ah-le]
congenital absence of the cranial vault, with the cerebral hemispheres completely missing or reduced to small masses. adj., adj anencephal´ic.

mer·o·an·en·ceph·a·ly

(mer'ō-an'en-sef'ă-lē),
Congenital absence of the calvaria and most of the brain, usually the forebrain and midbrain.
[mero- + G. an- priv. + enkephalos, brain]

anencephaly

/an·en·ceph·a·ly/ (an″en-sef´ah-le) congenital absence of the cranial vault, with the cerebral hemispheres completely missing or reduced to small masses.anencephal´ic

anencephaly

(ăn′ən-sĕf′ə-lē)
n. pl. anencepha·lies
Congenital absence of most of the brain and spinal cord.

an′en·ce·phal′ic (-sə-făl′ĭk) adj.

anencephaly

[an′ensef′əlē]
Etymology: Gk, a + encephalos, without brain
a neural tube defect in which absence of major portions of the brain and malformation of the brainstem occur. The cranium does not close and the vertebral canal remains a groove. It is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Anencephaly is not compatible with life. It can be detected early in gestation by amniocentesis and analysis or by ultrasonography. Recent research has shown that a diet rich in folic acid may reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. See also neural tube defect. anencephalous, adj.
enlarge picture
Anencephaly

anencephaly

A lethal malformation consisting of congenital partial or complete absence of the cranial vault accompanied by absence of overlying tissues, including the brain and cerebral hemispheres, skull and scalp. Most anencephalics die within the first week, and are of use as potential organ donors; ethical dilemmas inherent in such use of humans has made this a contentious issue.

Anencephaly develops in the first month of gestation and affects 0.14–0.7/1000 live births. The primary defect is failure of cranial neurulation, the embryologic process separating the forebrain precursors from the amniotic fluid; since neural tissue is exposed, cerebral tissue is haemorrhagic, fibrotic, and gliotic without functional cortex.

Aetiology
Usually idiopathic, possibly multifactorial or polygenic in origin. The risk of neural tube defects, including anencephaly, can be decreased by an adequate maternal ingestion of folic acid during pregnancy.

anencephaly

Neonatology A lethal malformation consisting of congenital partial or complete absence of the cranial vault accompanied by absence of overlying tissues, including the brain and cerebral hemispheres, skull and scalp; anencephaly develops in the 1st month of gestation and affects 0.14-0.7/1000 live births; the 1º abnormality is failure of cranial neurulation, the embryologic process separating the forebrain precursors from the amniotic fluid; since neural tissue is exposed, cerebral tissue is hemorrhagic, fibrotic, gliotic without functional cortex Etiology Usually idiopathic, possibly multifactorial or polygenic in origin. See Uniform Determination of Death Act.

mer·o·en·ceph·aly

(mĕr'ō-en-sef'ă-lē)
Congenital defective development of the brain in which the brain and cranium are present in rudimentary form.
Synonym(s): anencephaly.
[meros + G. an-, priv. + enkephalos, brain]

anencephaly

Absence of the greater part of the brain and of the bones (ACRANIA) at the rear of the skull. Anencephaly is a defect of development arising from a severe NEURAL TUBE DEFECT early in the development of the embryo and is incompatible with life. Anencephalic babies are born dead or die soon after birth. The term derives from the Greek an , not and encephalon , a brain. See ACEPHALUS.

Anencephaly

A hereditary defect resulting in the partial to complete absence of a brain and spinal cord. It is fatal.

anencephaly

underdevelopment of the brain and cranial vault; incompatible with normal life

anencephaly

congenital absence of the cranial vault, with the cerebral hemispheres completely missing or reduced to small masses.
References in periodicals archive ?
If these associations are causal, the absolute risks in the children of women who are treated with paroxetine early in pregnancy would increase for anencephaly from 2 per 10,000 to 7 per 10,000.
Morales started a Facebook account while she was carrying Angela to raise awareness about anencephaly and to defend human life.
There were also no significant differences between the maternal ages of mothers of infants with spina bifida or with anencephaly.
Association of anencephaly and ancephalocel was considered.
We had never heard of anencephaly before and we didn't know anything about the disorder.
Strong associations were also found between spina bifida and anencephaly and high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are byproducts of burning fossil fuels such as oil and coal.
When looking at data from the United States, Mersereau et al (2004) reported for the CDC that, when comparing a pre-fortification period of 1995 to 1996 with a post-fortification period of 1999 to 2000, the incidences of spina bifida and anencephaly dropped 26.
Exencephaly is a congenital malformation along a spectrum that includes acrania and anencephaly (acrania-exencephaly-anencephaly sequence).
Anencephaly and spina bifida comprising a vast majority of NTD are common congenital abnormalities, which contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality in infancy and childhood.
Anencephaly is when the fetal brain does not fully develop and spina bifida is when the spinal cord is not contained and protected by the spine.
A study recently published in The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal evaluated more than 1,000 cases of newborns with multiple anomalies to distinguish between cleft lip and/or palate and to determine their associations with other congenital anomalies, like club foot, ear defects, coronary heart disease and anencephaly, which is disrupted formation of the brain and skull.
There was, however, a significantly increased risk for anencephaly (odds ratio 2.