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Both sex-gender congruent and transgendered male androphilia may occur within a given culture, but typically one or the other tends to predominate (Whitam, 1983).
SOME CORRELATES OF MALE ANDROPHILIA REOCCUR CONSISTENTLY ACROSS DIVERSE CULTURES
Quantitative research indicates that the sex-gender congruent and transgendered forms of male androphilia share numerous developmental and biodemographic correlates that appear to be cross-culturally invariant.
In contrast, in cultures where transgendered male androphilia is the norm, feminine boys develop into feminine adult males.
Taken together, these numerous, cross-culturally uniform biodemographic and developmental correlates of male androphilia indicate that sex-gender congruent and transgendered male androphilia are cultural variants of what is essentially the same phenomenon with a common biological basis.
THE EXISTENCE OF MALE ANDROPHILIA IS AN EVOLUTIONARY PARADOX
Research indicates that male androphilia is influenced by genetic factors (e.
Since male androphilia appears to have a genetic component, but male androphiles reproduce little, if at all, one would have expected genes for male androphilia to have become extinct given the relative reproductive costs associated with this trait and the reproductive benefits associated with male gynephilia.
If it could be definitively demonstrated that male androphilia was a historically recent phenomenon that did not extend back into the evolutionary past, then one might reasonably dismiss the characterization of male androphilia as an evolutionary paradox.
Certain constellations of funerary remains may also be indicative of male androphilia in the ancestral past.
All told, the archaeological evidence for male androphilia in the prehistoric past is suggestive, but limited.
WHAT WAS THE ANCESTRAL FORM OF MALE ANDROPHILIA IN HUMANS?