This study tested the hypothesis that testosterone is embryotoxic to daphnids and that chemicals which cause metabolic androgenization, such as 4-nonylphenol and propiconazole, are also embryotoxic by virtue of their ability to elevate endogenous testosterone levels.
According to our working hypothesis, the previously described (4) metabolic androgenization caused by 4-nonylphenol results in testosterone-mediated embryotoxicity to daphnids.
Metabolic androgenization of female Daphnia magna by the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol.
50, 51, 56, 57]) the imminent threat of androgenization to women's sport and proposed out-of-competition control by analyzing athletes' urine with gas chromatography.
In particular, the studies of GDR scientists established that "androgenic initiation" has permanent effects in girls and women: After a critical period of androgenization and an increase in muscle strength, a higher performance level is reached that does not return to pretreatment values after the drug is withdrawn (see also Fig.
The androgenization of girls and young women was a most effective part of the GDR doping program.
She was the first to report the truth about the systematic and forceful androgenization of young athletes in GDR sports and to bring, as evidence, her "vitamin pills," which were identified in a West German laboratory as Oral-Turinabol.