This report presents a challenging case, wherein anatomic landmarks
were unclear due to a shoulder tumour.
Several methods have been devised to avoid these vital structures, all of them relying heavily on anatomic landmarks.
5) In this article, we describe the results of our study in which we used high-resolution CT to develop standardized measurements (including ranges of normal) for common anatomic landmarks in this area.
Percutaneous insertions of CVCs have traditionally been performed by "blind" techniques that rely on anatomic landmarks
4,5) Hence, a number of anatomic landmarks
are used to determine if the tumor lies in the deep or superficial lobe on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Furthermore, studies have shown that the EchoGen contrast agent does not produce a significant loss of anatomic landmarks
, known as attenuation, which can interfere with accurate diagnoses.
3-5) Both turbinates are consistent anatomic landmarks
that allow for safe entrance into the sphenoid sinus.
Longfield, chairman and chief executive officer, commented, "Without this real-time visualization technology, needle sticks are done blindly with the use of anatomic landmarks
as the only guide.
Investigators have used cadaver dissections to identify and measure anatomic landmarks
that can aid the surgeon and help prevent complications.
Although this approach is widely used, surgeons are still not certain which anatomic landmarks
are best to locate the facial nerve and internal acoustic canal without causing labyrinthine damage.
Dissections performed in our temporal bone laboratory have shown that we can find the endolymphatic sac by following anatomic landmarks
on the posterosuperior wall of the petrous pyramid.
Their greatest utility is in patients who have extreme polypoid disease, advanced tumors, a distorted anatomy (figure 1), or a lack of anatomic landmarks
as a result of previous surgery.