The CBTRUS estimates that the broad category glioma represents approximately 80% of malignant tumors and in patients between zero and 19 years of age, the overall total incidence of HGG (including anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma
, glioblastoma, mixed glioma, and malignant glioma) is approximately 0.
As for the mandatory elements of a CNS tumor report summarized by Parisi et al, (8) these are all routinely included in a proper traditional diagnostic line and gross description; for example, "Brain, right frontal tumor, stereotactic biopsy: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma
(WHO grade III) (see comment).
Doctors described it as an anaplastic oligodendroglioma
or adult tumour.
In 1998, Cairncross and colleagues (4) reported that loss of 1p (and combined loss of 1p and 19q) predicts a better response to procarbazine-lomustine-vincristine chemotherapy and a longer survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma
Specific genetic predictors of chemotherapeutic response and survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma
Panel review of anaplastic oligodendroglioma
from European Organization For Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial 26951: assessment of consensus in diagnosis, influence of 1p/19q loss, and correlations with outcome.
Additional variants, some of which have significant morphologic overlap with tumors that have more favorable prognosis and treatment response rates, particularly anaplastic oligodendroglioma
, have been described since its publication in 2000 and may be included in the next classification.
A landmark study of 35 anaplastic oligodendroglioma
patients published in 1998 provided the link between molecular genetics and clinical outcome by showing that those patients whose tumors exhibited 1p/19q loss experienced favorable therapeutic response and longer survival times than patients whose tumors lacked this change.
In 12 reoperated tumors, pathologic examination revealed progression toward an anaplastic oligodendroglioma
, whereas the remaining 7 exhibited the same histology found in the primary tumor.
All cases were diagnosed and graded according to criteria set forth by the World Health Organization as well-differentiated astrocytoma (WDA, WHO grade II) (2 cases), well-differentiated oligodendroglioma (WDO, WHO grade II) (3 cases), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, WHO grade III) (2 cases), anaplastic oligodendroglioma
(AC), WHO grade III) (2 cases), and GBM (WHO grade IV) (7 cases).
2003) contains expression levels of 12625 genes of 50 gliomas samples: 28 glioblastomas and 22 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas
divided into two subsets of classic and non-classic gliomas.
Chemotherapeutic treatment of primary brain tumors has focused on malignant gliomas, including anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas
, and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), largely as a result of the increasing numbers of these tumors being diagnosed and the fatal nature of these tumor types.