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a slight elevation flanking the cloacal membrane and derived from a cloacal fold; anal folds form the border of the anus.
relating to the anus.
acute, purulent infections in the area of the anus, usually caused by gram-negative organisms. In dogs, these most often arise from the anal sacs.
anal atresia, atresia ani
congenital absence or stenosis of the anus manifested by an absence of feces and a gradual development of abdominal distention. Fistulae may develop between the rectum and urogenital tract. The anomalous development can occur in several forms and may be accompanied by similar atresia at higher levels of the intestine. There is usually normal development of sphincters. A dimple is usually evident at the point at which surgical intervention is required.
the short, terminal, retroperitoneal segment of the intestinal tract between the rectum and anus.
a congenital constriction combined with vulvar constriction occurs in Jersey cattle.
occurs in cattle and excision effected for esthetic reasons.
see perianal fistula.
see anal fold.
see perianal fistula.
the dorsal part of the cloacal membrane in the embryo; when it eventually breaks down the dorsal passage becomes the rectoanal passage.
see rectovaginal fistula.
the protrusion of a small amount of mucosa through the anus.
the pursing of the anal orifice when the perineum is stimulated; indicative of an animal with intact sacral segments of the spinal cord.
see anal sacs.
inflammation of the anal sacs.
the internal anal sphincter is formed from smooth muscle of the anal canal while the external anal sphincter, which is larger and of greater importance in fecal continence, consists of striated muscle.
anal sphincter hypertrophy
occurs in aged dogs and may give rise to difficult and painful defecation.
scar formation after perianal fistulae, trauma, severe anal sac disease, or treatment for neoplasia may result in a reduced lumen and particularly a loss of the capacity to dilate with passage of feces. Straining, passage of ribbon-like feces and constipation result.
inflammation and ulceration of the perianal skin which may be associated with anal sac disease. Seen most commonly in German shepherd dogs.