anabolic steroids


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anabolic steroids

Drugs which promote tissue growth, especially of muscle, by stimulating protein synthesis. Anabolic steroids are synthetic male sex hormones and tend to cause VIRILIZATION. These steroids are sometimes misused by athletes and bodybuilders to gain an unfair advantage. The risks are considerable and include life-threatening varicella-zoster pneumonitis, renal-cell carcinoma, liver damage with jaundice, systemic infection with Candida albicans including ENDOPHTHALMITIS, breast enlargement (gynaecomastia), mood swings and aggressiveness (‘steroid rage’) and induction of psychotic disorders. Women run the additional risks of virilization.

Anabolic steroids

A group of drugs derived from the male sex hormone testosterone, most commonly prescribed to promote growth or to help the body repair tissues weakened by severe illness or aging. Some anabolic steroids are given as appetite stimulants.

anabolic steroids

usually refers to a group of synthetic drugs based on the male sex hormone testosterone secreted by the testes, and having similar anabolic and other androgenic actions to this and other androgens from the adrenal cortex in both sexes. These drugs are misused in sports, especially where enhanced power and strength are beneficial such as weight lifting and cycling. Used in conjunction with a training programme, they lead to an increase in muscle size and power. They may also lessen fatigue and improve tissue repair. Use in children can lead to premature fusion of the epiphyses, stunting skeletal growth. Side effects are common and potentially serious. They include psychological changes (notably aggression), liver damage, cardiovascular (raised blood pressure) and endocrine effects (masculinization in females, testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count in males.) See also adrenal glands, hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

anabolic steroids,

n.pl a group of compounds derived from testosterone or prepared synthetically to promote general growth. Anabolic steroids are used in the treatment of aplastic anemia, anemias associated with renal failure, myeloid metaplasia, and leukemia. Anabolic steroids are subject to abuse to promote muscle mass in athletes.
References in periodicals archive ?
To compete for Megan's affection with Will, a talented rugby player, he starts bodybuilding and becomes addicted to anabolic steroids.
We are thankful as well to other legislators and industry stakeholders who kept the serious issue of designer anabolic steroids in front of key colleagues in Congress.
CRN lobbied Congress to pass the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 and has tenaciously led the charge for the dietary supplement industry since that time, ramping up activities in 2014 with outreach to legislative offices on Capitol Hill in support of DASCA, underscoring its value to consumers as well as to responsible dietary supplement companies.
Charges against Fenton include allegations he was illegally in possession of Nitrotain, which contains the anabolic steroid ethylestrenol and is reported to improve the muscle mass, strength and stamina of horses.
According to UHS specialists, the abuse of anabolic steroids may also increase the possibility of prostate cancer and other serious diseases.
Males who did use a greater amount of nutritional supplements were also more apt to use anabolic steroids than those taking fewer supplements.
The 39-year-old's house was searched and a total of 1,700 pills believed to be anabolic steroids were also confiscated.
Anabolic steroids can also lead to an expansion of the cardiac muscle, which can cause heart attacks, according to Dr.
Hopefully the new legislation will be clear and conclusive in banning the use of anabolic steroids and ensure that the use of these drugs becomes a criminal act and perpertrators will be severely punished.
There are two different types of steroids - anabolic steroids that build muscle and corticosteroids that are anti-inflammatory.
One involves a confession from a trainer regarding the knowing administration of anabolic steroids and the other - which is subject to an ongoing investigation - relates to a veterinary product the administration of which appears to have been recommended by a veterinary practice.
He was arrested in May after an Idaho State Police investigation into Ward's reported sale of anabolic steroids to several of his teammates.