anabolic steroids


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anabolic steroids

Drugs which promote tissue growth, especially of muscle, by stimulating protein synthesis. Anabolic steroids are synthetic male sex hormones and tend to cause VIRILIZATION. These steroids are sometimes misused by athletes and bodybuilders to gain an unfair advantage. The risks are considerable and include life-threatening varicella-zoster pneumonitis, renal-cell carcinoma, liver damage with jaundice, systemic infection with Candida albicans including ENDOPHTHALMITIS, breast enlargement (gynaecomastia), mood swings and aggressiveness (‘steroid rage’) and induction of psychotic disorders. Women run the additional risks of virilization.

Anabolic steroids

A group of drugs derived from the male sex hormone testosterone, most commonly prescribed to promote growth or to help the body repair tissues weakened by severe illness or aging. Some anabolic steroids are given as appetite stimulants.

anabolic steroids

usually refers to a group of synthetic drugs based on the male sex hormone testosterone secreted by the testes, and having similar anabolic and other androgenic actions to this and other androgens from the adrenal cortex in both sexes. These drugs are misused in sports, especially where enhanced power and strength are beneficial such as weight lifting and cycling. Used in conjunction with a training programme, they lead to an increase in muscle size and power. They may also lessen fatigue and improve tissue repair. Use in children can lead to premature fusion of the epiphyses, stunting skeletal growth. Side effects are common and potentially serious. They include psychological changes (notably aggression), liver damage, cardiovascular (raised blood pressure) and endocrine effects (masculinization in females, testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count in males.) See also adrenal glands, hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

anabolic steroids,

n.pl a group of compounds derived from testosterone or prepared synthetically to promote general growth. Anabolic steroids are used in the treatment of aplastic anemia, anemias associated with renal failure, myeloid metaplasia, and leukemia. Anabolic steroids are subject to abuse to promote muscle mass in athletes.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) also opposed adding anabolic steroids to the Controlled Substances Act.
It is not against the law to possess anabolic steroids, but it is illegal to manufacture or supply the muscleenhancing drug.
Whatever motivates insecure teenage boys to start body-building - girl troubles, bullying, problems at home, pressure to look like Action Man - the temptation to speed up the process of developing muscle bulk by taking anabolic steroids is immense.
The law calls for DEA to address products that are "substantially similar" to anabolic steroids and that have been illegally marketed to promote muscle growth.
Clinical tests conducted on users of various anabolic steroids showed that they can cause numerous health problems such as liver diseases, interstitial nephritis, intestinal and respiratory disorders and hair loss.
An activity like using nonmedical anabolic steroids is not a trait that is set when someone is born.
Also it was raised another issue by the national team player, "Waleed Ali" for anti -doping, who was a user of anabolic steroids, where they were taking a sample of Al- Arabi defenders "Mohammed Freeh" and "Ahmed Ibrahim," and Al- Jahra guard "Satam al-Husseini" and the defender, "Hammoud Melfi to subject them for doping examination, after the end of the game.
Mancini, adding that there's also danger from the side effects of anabolic steroids.
I and the vast multitude of Equestrian Sport lovers in the UAE are absolutely delighted to hear of the strong stand that His Highness Shaikh Mohammmad has taken against the importation of anabolic steroids into the UAE which will effectively stop the use of the drug in this country," said Buckley who won the Grand National in 1962.
Godolphin's founder, Dubai ruler Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum, issued a decree Thursday banning anabolic steroids in all horse-related sports in the United Arab Emirates.
Newmarket-based Al Zarooni was banned for eight years last Thursday after he admitted administering anabolic steroids to 15 horses in his care.
TRAINER John Berry believes it would be "very, very sad" if fellow Newmarket handler Gerard Butler were to lose his licence after admitting mistakenly using anabolic steroids on some of his horses.