In addition to differences in bulk iron content, crocidolite and Libby amphibole
differ greatly in amounts of bioavailable redox-active iron, which is responsible for ROS generation (Hardy and Aust 1995).
Numerous experimental animal studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of fibers of the six commercially used asbestos minerals [the serpentine chrysotile and the amphiboles
cumming-tonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), tremolite asbestos, riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), actinolite asbestos, and anthophyliite asbestos in multiple species (rats, hamsters, mice) by exposure via inhalation, intrapleural injection, implantation, and ingestion (reviewed by Kamp 2009; Lippmann 1990).
The most abundant mafic Mineral is green amphibole
of magnesio-hornblende composition (Fig.
The median amphibole
asbestos fiber counts for all subjects irrespective of fibrosis were 16 million fibers per gram of dry lung tissue for a naval dockyard cohort and 106 million fibers per gram of dry lung tissue for an asbestos product factory cohort (19,20); their respective standardized mortality ratios were 84 (not elevated) and 210 (more than doubling of risk).
minerals produce more disease than chrysotile asbestos when the fibres are used in the same way - yet European regulators treat the substances in the same way.
One hundred and fifty microprobe analyses were carried out, comprising 46 analyses of plagioclase feldspar, 48 of amphibole
(hornblende), 54 of biotite and 2 of tourmaline.
Potency differences for predominantly chrysotile versus amphibole
asbestos-exposed cohorts become difficult to ascertain when meta-analyses are restricted to studies with fewer exposure assessment limitations.
In one case, even when the plaintiff and the plaintiff's experts had testified to exposure to amphibole
insulating products, "Garlock and Garrison's attorney agreed to a settlement figure 42 minutes after[Garlock's lawyer's] initial email seeking to settle the case.
asbestos, which is commonly banned, indeed consists of fibres that are difficult to dissolve in the acid environment of a human being, then it is not even considered relevant that fibres of chrysotile asbestos can be dissolved in two weeks in the lungs with no negative health effects at all.
Like these granitoids, the Vlc-2 granodiorite is different from the Palaeoproterozoic charnockites of the Kursiai intrusion in Lithuania by lacking orthopyroxene but being rich in amphibole
and brown biotite, which indicates lower temperatures of crystallization and somewhat higher contents of [H.
Berner RA, Schott J (1982) Mechanism of pyroxene and amphibole
Collector's Guide to the Amphibole
Group covers an important, beautiful set of crystals--the amphiboles
--and organizes them in such a way that mineral collectors will understand their properties and structural features.