ammonium

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ammonium

 [ah-mo´ne-um]
a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate a mixture of ammonium compounds used as a liquefying expectorant in the treatment of chronic bronchitis and similar lung disorders. It is sometimes used as a reflex stimulant in “smelling salts” because of the strong ammonia odor it gives off.
ammonium chloride colorless or white crystals, with a cool, salty taste, used as an expectorant because it liquefies bronchial secretions. In the body it is changed to urea and hydrochloric acid, and thus is useful in acidifying the urine and increasing the rate of urine flow. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium lactate lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-yŭm),
An ion, NH4+, formed by combining NH3 and H+ (the pKa value is 9.24); acts as a univalent metal in forming ammonium compounds.

ammonium

/am·mo·ni·um/ (ah-mo´ne-um) the hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate  a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) and ammonium carbamate (NH2CO2NH4), used as a stimulant, as in smelling salts, and as an expectorant.
ammonium chloride  a systemic and urinary acidifying agent and diuretic, also used orally as an expectorant.
ammonium lactate  lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

ammonium (NH4+)

an ion formed by the reaction of ammonia (NH3) with a hydrogen ion (H+). The ammonium ion is highly soluble in water but does not pass easily through cell membranes, as does the ammonia molecule, and its rate of excretion is influenced in part by the acidity of urine. The lower the pH, the greater the proportion of ammonium ions present, assuming a constant level of ammonia production from amino acid metabolism.

storage lesion

Transfusion medicine The constellation of changes occurring in a unit of packed red cells during storage. See Red cell preservatives.
Storage lesions
Ammonium to 470 µmol/L–US: 800 µg/dL
Free Hb in plasma from 82 to 6580 mg/L–US: 8.2 to 658 mg/dL
K+ from 4.2 to 78.5 mmol/L–US: 4.2 to 78.5 mEq/L
ATP from 100% to 45%
2,3 DPG to < 10% of original levels–replenished within 24 hours of transfusion
Labile proteins, eg complement, fibronectin and coagulation factors ↓ to negligible
Na+ from 169 to 111 mmol/L–US: 169 to 111 mEq/L
pH from 7.6 to 6.7
Adverse physiologic effects of stored blood is negligible in the absence of a previous compromise of the Pt's–recipient's status

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-ŭm)
The ion, NH4+, formed by combination of NH3 and H+; behaves as a univalent metal in forming compounds.

ammonium

a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals. See also ammonia.

ammonium acetate
a weak diuretic and feed supplement.
ammonium bifluoride
wood preservative; causes diarrhea and fall in milk yield in cattle.
ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride
saline expectorants used for the purpose of liquefying pulmonary secretions. Effectiveness has not been proven. They are sometimes used as a reflex stimulant because of the strong ammonia given off. The chloride salt is used mainly as a urinary acidifier. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium magnesium phosphate
see magnesium ammonium phosphate.
ammonium metavanadate
experimentally causes vanadium poisoning.
ammonium nitrate
causes nitrate poisoning.
ammonium oxalate
causes oxalate poisoning.
ammonium phosphate
a feed additive for cattle. The monobasic salt provides 27% phosphorus and 13% nitrogen, while the dibasic salt provides 23% phosphorus and 21% nitrogen.
ammonium sulfamate
used as a herbicide; cattle and deer eating treated plants may be poisoned.
ammonium sulfate
causes ammonia poisoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
When the highly filled polymer is contacted with a mixture of ethyl acetate and water where the oxetane polymer is soluble only in ethyl acetate and ammonium sulfate is soluble only in water, the oxetane polymer and ammonium sulfate were found to dissolve simultaneously.
The least potassium concentration was observed at combination of urea and ammonium nitrate whereas the highest potassium concentration was obtained in ammonium sulfate form.
The purification process in the presence of ammonium sulfate at high concentration the enzyme activity decreases dramatically Graph 5.
Independent agronomic tests on crops and plants -- ranging from grass to cabbage and tomatoes to strawberry and oranges -- found the new fertilizer to be as effective or more effective compared to alternative fertilizers, including straight mixtures of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.
Margins have also been more stable, as the prices for ammonium sulfate have been correlated with those of ammonia and sulfur, the two principal inputs for the Pasadena plant.
We look forward to having this new crystallizer system in place to increase the quality of ammonium sulfate to supply our customers for blending, direct applications and industrial use.
Exposure to ozone and ammonium sulfate elevated lavage-protein content 26 percent above the level found in animals exposed to ozone only.
This report was created for strategic planners, international marketing executives and import/export managers who are concerned with the market for ammonium sulfate fertilizers in Australia.
In what follows, Chapter 2 begins by summarizing where South Africa fits into the world market for imported and exported ammonium sulfate fertilizers.
Install 40% ammonium sulfate chemical feed and storage system in new precast concrete buildings at six WTPs to convert distribution system residual disinfectant to chloramines.
Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer), and Other Applications Markets
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