Escherichia coli infections in chickens can usually be treated with potentiated sulfonamides, aminopenicillins
, colistin, tetracyclines, spectinomycin, aminoglycosides, and enrofloxacin.
Fluoroquinolones were prescribed at 11% of visits, aminopenicillins
at 7%, and cephalosporins at 7%.
, sulphonamides, quinolones, cycline antibiotics) [7,12] and antiretroviral (ARV) medications (e.
cloacae are intrinsically resistant to aminopenicillins
, cefazolin, and cefoxitin due to the production of ampC [beta]-lactamases (Anggakusuma et al.
In patients whose UTI acute picture has a flammy course or in whom pyelonephritis is found, aminoglycosides and third generation cefalosporins should be the primary options along with aminopenicillins
In a survey by Sivagnanam et al (7), most used group of antibiotics in southern part of India were aminopenicillins
, quinolones and cephalosporins, most commonly prescribed being amoxycillin, ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole.
aureus are resistant to natural penicillins, aminopenicillins
, and antipseudomonal penicillins (Chambers et al.
Accordingly, the efficacy of aminopenicillins
is beyond satisfaction for these two pathogens in Turkey due to regional data.
Subclasses included aminoglycosides (kanamycin, gentamicin, streptomycin), aminopenicillins
(ampicillin), [beta]-lactamase inhibitor combinations (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid), first-generation cephalosporins (cephalothin), third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone), cephamycins (cefoxitin), folate pathway inhibitors (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), phenicols (chloramphenicol), quinolones (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin), sulfonamides (sulfisoxazole), and tetracyclines (tetracycline).
Resistance has been reported for aminopenicillins
, cephamycins, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, most aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines, among others.
Selected warfarin-antibiotic interactions and level of supporting evidence (a) Antibiotic Strength of evidence Type of evidence/comment Sulfonamides ++++ TMP-SMX probably has largest effect of all antibiotics Fluoroquinolones +++ More than 65 case reports of potentiation with ciprofloxacin Increasing evidence of levofloxacin interaction Penicillins/ Minimal evidence for penicillin cephalosporins +++ or cephalosporins Stronger evidence for potentiation by aminopenicillins
(b) Strongest evidence for reduction in INR by synthetic penicillins (c) Macrolides ++ Strongest for erythromycin, which changes warfarin metabolism Retrospective analysis of azithromycin did not show clinically significant interaction (a) TMP-SMX, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; INR, international normalized ratio.
, cephalosporins, first-generation antihistamines, acid reducers, herbal and related extracts, and calcium and iron minerals are among the pharmaceutical chemicals expected to fare well on the open market.