aminoglycoside


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Related to aminoglycoside: metronidazole, vancomycin

aminoglycoside

 [ah-me″no-gli´ko-sīd]
any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. They contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars. The group includes amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. They are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative organisms and are classified as bactericidal agents because of their interference with bacterial replication. All are highly toxic, requiring frequent monitoring of blood serum levels and careful observation of the patient for early signs of toxicity, particularly ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd),
Any one of a group of bacteriocidal antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum and characterized by two or more amino sugars joined by a glycoside linkage to a central hexose; aminoglycosides act by causing misreading and inhibition of protein synthesis on bacterial ribosomes and are effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some commonly used aminoglycosides are streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamicin.

aminoglycoside

/ami·no·gly·co·side/ (-gli´ko-sīd) any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics (e.g., streptomycin, gentamicin) derived from various species of Streptomyces or produced synthetically; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes.

aminoglycoside

(ə-mē′nō-glī′kə-sīd′, ăm′ə-)
n.
Any of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as streptomycin, derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonospora bacteria and used to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

aminoglycoside

Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin) which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria.
 
Pharmacodynamics
Poorly absorbed per os; poor penetration of CNS-BBB; rapid excretion if kidneys are normal.
 
Types
Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin.
 
Toxicity
Dose-related (kidneys, vestibular, auditory and neuromuscular systems), minor skin rash, drug fever, decreased Mg2+, decreased Ca2+, decreased K+; it is common practice to monitor patients receiving AGs.

aminoglycoside

Therapeutics Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics–amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin, which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria Pharmacodynamics Poorly absorbed per os, poor penetration of CNS–BBB, rapid excretion if kidneys are normal Types Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin Toxicity Dose-related–kidneys, vestibular, auditory, and neuromuscular systems, minor skin rash, drug fever, ↓ Mg2+, ↓ Ca2+, ↓ K+; it is common practice to monitor Pts receiving AGs. See Therapeutic drug monitoring.

aminoglycoside 

Any one of a group of antibiotics composed of amino sugars in glycoside linkage which act by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial proteins. It is used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Examples: framycetin, gentamicin, neomycin and tobramycin.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd)
Any bacteriocidal antibiotic derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum; effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

aminoglycoside

any of a group of bacterial antibiotics derived from various species of Streptomyces that interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. These compounds contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars.
The aminoglycosides include gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, amikacin, kanamycin and neomycin. They are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative organisms and are classified as bactericidal agents because of their interference with bacterial replication. All of the aminoglycoside antibiotics are highly toxic, requiring monitoring of blood serum levels at frequent intervals and careful observation of the patient for early signs of toxicity, particularly ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
References in periodicals archive ?
In animal studies, ORC-13661 provided highly significant protection of hearing in rats exposed to high doses of aminoglycoside antibiotics, a common cause of human hearing loss.
Following the company's successful clinical trials, ORC-13661 may be the first US FDA-approved medicine to prevent hearing loss for patients undergoing aminoglycoside treatment.
The genome of enterococci encodes aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME).
CDC investigators found the Klebsiella pneumoniae, which the woman contracted in India, totally resistant to 26 antibiotics, including all aminoglycosides and polymyxins, and intermediately resistant to tigecycline (a tetracycline derivative).
Davey PG, Parker SE, Orange G, Malek M, Dodd T Prospective audit of costs and outcome of aminoglycoside treatment and of therapy for gram-negative bacteraemia.
Through a novel collaboration between Stanford and University College London (UCL), the aim of this research is to use a results-guided drug design approach to develop the next generation of safer aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Association of the novel aminoglycoside resistance determinant RmtF with NDM carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in India and the UK.
Hanessian adds that this change also decreases the basicity of aminoglycosides, another desirable result, since it will limit the potential toxicity to humans.
We designed the present study to evaluate the effect of aminoglycoside therapy on the outer hair cells of neonates.
An estimated 20% to 60% of all patients treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics - including newborn babies - experience partial or complete deafness, which is irreversible.