aminoacyl-tRNA


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a·mi·no·ac·yl-tRNA

(ă-mē'nō-as'il),
Generic term for those compounds in which amino acids are esterfied through their COOH groups to the 3'- (or 2'-) OHs of the terminal adenosine residues of transfer RNAs (for example, alanyl-tRNA, glycyl-tRNA); each compound involves one, or a small number, of tRNAs of specific chemical structure. Used in protein biosynthesis.

aminoacyl-tRNA

the molecule produced when an AMINO ACID is activated into its aminoacyl form and attached to its specific TRANSFER RNA molecule, the whole process being catalysed by a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme. Also called charged tRNA.

tRNA

transfer RNA (ribonucleic acid).

aminoacyl-tRNA
transfer RNA to which its specific amino acid has been coupled by its specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
aminoacyl-tRNA binding site
one of two tRNA binding sites on a ribosome that holds the incoming tRNA molecule charged with an amino acid. Called also A site.
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
a set of enzymes that couple each of the 20 amino acids to its appropriate tRNA molecule.
initiator tRNA
a special methionine tRNA that binds to the initiation codon AUG that forms part of the initiation complex at the start of mRNA translation.
peptidyl-tRNA binding site
one of two tRNA binding sites on a ribosome that holds the tRNA that is normally linked to the polypeptide chain. Called also P site.
References in periodicals archive ?
This bias exists among the 61 amino acid codons found in mRNA molecules, and the levels of aminoacyl-tRNAs seem to correlate with the frequency of codon usage [3,4].
Rodriguez performed many laborious experiments in which she removed portions of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that interact with the anticodon stem of the transfer RNA, far from the part of the enzyme that binds the amino acid.
24)] Miscellaneous Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase autoantibodies [Park et al.
The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases help establish the rules of the genetic code, by mediating the translation of DNA to protein.
11:00 Size Identification of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases from Plants
In these 36 reports, contributors describe their most recent research in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the point in gene expression in which the genetic code is first defined.
Furthermore, the full complement of aminoacyl-tRNAs necessary for translation is not entirely formed by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS).
The existence of a complex of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in plants is still in question.
Translational accuracy of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: implications for atherosclerosis.
This depurination of the SR loop results in irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis at the translation step by impairing both the elongation factor (EF) 1-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA and the GTP-dependent binding of EF-2 to the affected ribosome (Gessner and Irvin, 1980).
Root of the universal tree of life based on ancient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene duplications.
Therefore, an RNA-only-based protein synthesis system would require a set of RNA molecules capable of synthesizing aminoacyl-RNAs, which are produced by the protein aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in extant biology.