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Generic term for those compounds in which amino acids are esterfied through their COOH groups to the 3'- (or 2'-) OHs of the terminal adenosine residues of transfer RNAs (for example, alanyl-tRNA, glycyl-tRNA); each compound involves one, or a small number, of tRNAs of specific chemical structure. Used in protein biosynthesis.
aminoacyl-tRNAthe molecule produced when an AMINO ACID is activated into its aminoacyl form and attached to its specific TRANSFER RNA molecule, the whole process being catalysed by a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme. Also called charged tRNA.
transfer RNA (ribonucleic acid).
transfer RNA to which its specific amino acid has been coupled by its specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
aminoacyl-tRNA binding site
one of two tRNA binding sites on a ribosome that holds the incoming tRNA molecule charged with an amino acid. Called also A site.
a set of enzymes that couple each of the 20 amino acids to its appropriate tRNA molecule.
a special methionine tRNA that binds to the initiation codon AUG that forms part of the initiation complex at the start of mRNA translation.
peptidyl-tRNA binding site
one of two tRNA binding sites on a ribosome that holds the tRNA that is normally linked to the polypeptide chain. Called also P site.