amino


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amino

 [ah-me´no, am´ĭ-no]
the monovalent radical NH2, when not united with an acid radical.
amino acid any of a class of organic compounds containing the amino (NH2) and the carboxyl (COOH) groups, occurring naturally in plant and animal tissues and forming the chief constituents of protein. Twenty amino acids are necessary for protein synthesis. Eleven (the nonessential amino acids) can be synthesized by the human body and thus are not specifically required in the diet: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. Nine (the essential amino acids) cannot be synthesized by humans and thus are required in the diet: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
 Structural formulas for some representative amino acids. From Applegate, 2000.


Protein foods that provide the essential amino acids are known as complete proteins; these include proteins from animal sources, such as meat, eggs, fish, and milk. Proteins that cannot supply the body with all the essential amino acids are known as incomplete proteins; these are the vegetable proteins most abundantly found in legumes (peas and beans), as well as certain grains. Because different incomplete proteins lack different amino acids, specific combinations can provide all of the essential amino acids.

In certain inherited or acquired disorders of metabolism, specific amino acids accumulate in the blood (aminoacidemia) or are excreted in excess in the urine (aminoaciduria). Urinary amino acid levels are increased in liver disease, muscular dystrophies, phenylketonuria (PKU), lead poisoning, and folic acid deficiency.

amino

/ami·no/ (ah-me´no) (am´ĭ-no″) the monovalent radical NH2, when not united with an acid radical.

amino

the monovalent radical −NH2, when not united with an acid radical.
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50 years on, although the underlying principles of amino acid analysis remain the same, analysis times for full profiles now take less than two hours to perform.
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