carcinoma (kar?sin-o'ma ) [ carcin- + -oma]
A malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue and may infiltrate local tissues or produce metastases. It may affect almost any organ or part of the body and spread by direct extension, through lymphatics, or through the bloodstream. The causes vary with tumor type.
Optimal patient care includes: identifying and explaining to patient and family the type of cancer and its typical natural history; options for treatment, side effects of treatments, expected response of the cancer to the treatment, best predictions for recovery and life expectancy, availability of clinical trials, alternative and complementary therapies, and the potential benefit of referral to specialty cancer centers.
acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas
A rare carcinoma that arises from pancreatic cells that manufacture digestive proteins, such as lipase, chymotrypsin, or alpha-1-antitrypsin.
alveolar cell carcinoma
A type of lung carcinoma.
BASAL CELL CARCINOMA
BASAL CELL CARCINOMA
basal cell carcinoma Abbreviation: BCC
The most common human cancer, typically found on skin exposed to sun or other forms of ultraviolet light. Although it is sometimes locally invasive, it rarely metastasizes to other organs. Typically it begins as a small, shiny papule. The lesion enlarges to form a whitish border around a central depression or ulcer that may bleed. When the lesion reaches this stage, it is often called a rodent ulcer. After biopsy, the removal method used is determined by the size, location, and appearance of the lesion. Synonym: basal cell epithelioma
; epithelial cancer
A relatively rare form of non-small cell lung cancer consisting of columnar cells, and in which the tumor arises in the periphery of the lung within the septal borders of the alveoli, which the tumor tends to preserve. The tumor cells frequently produce mucin.
bronchogenic carcinomaLung cancer.
choroid plexus carcinoma
A cancer that arises from the cells that line the fluid-filled cavities (ventricles) of the brain.
carcinoma of the colon See: colorectal cancer
colorectal carcinomaColorectal cancer.
Any slowly growing squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, typically presenting as a gradually enlarging warty tumor.
ductal carcinoma in situ of breast See: ductal carcinoma in situ of breast
An aggressive germ cell tumor that may metastasize widely. It can occur in young adults of either sex.
epidermoid carcinomaSquamous cell carcinoma.
Metastatic spreading of cancer, usually from an internal organ to the skin, to which the spreading tumor gives a red, inflammatory appearance.
giant cell carcinoma
Carcinoma marked by the presence of unusually large cells.
A cancer arising from cells in the epidermis. It includes basal cell carcinomas, keratoacanthomas, and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Most keratinocyte carcinomas arise in sun-exposed areas of the body, such as the ears, the temples, the forehead or the nose.
carcinoma in situ Abbreviation: CIS
Malignant cell changes in the epithelial tissue that do not extend beyond the basement membrane.
Carcinoma in which there is a predominance of cells and little fibrous tissue.
Carcinoma containing melanin.
Carcinoma in which the glandular tissue secretes mucin.
Any of a diverse group of malignancies, such as carcinoid, islet cell tumors, neuroblastoma, and small-cell carcinomas of the lung. All have dense core granules and produce polypeptides that can be identified by immunochemical methods.
oat cell carcinoma
A poorly differentiated carcinoma of the bronchus that contains small oat-shaped cells. Synonym: small cell carcinoma
carcinoma of pancreasPancreatic cancer.
pancreatic carcinomaPancreatic cancer.
papillary carcinoma of the thyroid See: papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
renal cell carcinoma
A carcinoma that arises from the proximal tubular cells of the kidney. In 2008 the American Cancer Society estimated there would be about 56,700 new patients diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and about 13,700 deaths from it. Synonym: hypernephroma
; kidney cancer
Because of its location in the retroperitoneum, renal cell carcinoma may grow to a relatively large size before it manifests obvious symptoms. The most common findings are blood in the urine (hematuria), flank pain, or a flank mass. Some patients develop fevers, weight loss, or symptoms caused by hormones excreted by the tumor. These hormones (parathyroid-like hormone or erythropoietin) occasionally cause hypercalcemia or abnormal increases in the red blood cell count (erythrocytosis).
Surgical removal of the affected kidney may be curative for those patients whose tumor has not spread outside the perirenal fascia. Treatment options are less successful for patients with metastatic disease because renal cell carcinomas are relatively resistant to chemotherapy.
A carcinoma that contains both epithelial and mesenchymal components. This cancer may arise from cells in the kidney, urinary bladder, or lung.
scirrhous carcinomaHard cancer.
small cell carcinomaOat cell carcinoma.
SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
squamous cell carcinoma
Carcinoma that develops primarily from squamous cells, e.g., of the skin or in the mouth, lungs, bronchi, esophagus, or cervix. Synonym: epidermoid carcinoma See: illustrationillustrationillustration
A carcinoma found in the anterior mediastinum, usually a squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, or lymphoepithelioma. Many of these tumors release chemically active substances that cause paraneoplastic syndromes.
transitional cell carcinoma
A carcinoma that originates in cells that line the urinary tract, e.g., in cells that line the inner kidney, the ureters, or the urinary bladder. Synonym: urothelial carcinoma
urothelial carcinomaTransitional cell carcinoma.