sup] demonstrated that the ketogenic diet and Deanna Protocol (a diet consisting of 10% arginine alpha-ketoglutarate
Using GC-MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) to detect alpha-hydroxyisovalerate, lactate, pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate
(A-KG) as an antidote for cyanide poisoning.
Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of cyanide in LLC-MK2 cells and its attenuation by alpha-ketoglutarate
and N-acetyl cysteine.
The mutated lymphoma cell displays a deficiency of a metabolite called alpha-ketoglutarate
(α-KG), which is needed in steady levels for cells to be healthy.
It is also a cofactor for two key mitochondrial enzymes essential to energy production, the conversion of pyruvate to acetylcoenzyme A (CoA), and the alpha-ketoglutarate
dehydrogenase complex, which catalyzes the conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate
to succinyl CoA, both important reactions in the citric acid (Kreb's) cycle.
Campbell B, Roberts M, Kerksick C, Wilborn C, Marcello B, Taylor L, Nassar E, Leutholtz B, Bowden R, Rasmussen C et al (2006) Pharmacokinetics, safety, and effects on exercise performance of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate
in trained adult men.
A naturally occurring cofactor for the mitochondrial enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate
dehydrogenase, LA has been shown to have a variety of properties which can interfere with the pathogenesis or progression of AD.
Zn2+ inhibits alpha-ketoglutarate
-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and the isolated alpha-ketoglutarate
Additional research may look at arginine and alpha-ketoglutarate
based on their role in nitric oxide (NO) production, as well as beta-alanine and functional sugars, such as tagatose and trehalose.
It has also been shown that the AD brain has decreased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex which generates acetyl-CoA, the precursor of acetylcholine from pyruvate [41, 42], decreased activity of phosphofructokinase , and alpha-ketoglutarate
dehydrogenase  but increased cerebral release of ammonia and amino acids [39, 40].
Pharmokinetic Profile of Time Released and Non-Time Released Oral Arginine," "Effects Of Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate
Supplementation on Body Composition and Training Adaptations," "Effects of Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate
Supplementation on Markers of Catabolism and Health Status" and "Effects of Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate
Supplementation on Quality of Life.