These can include trying a different stimulant or using a nonstimulant such as atomoxetine or an alpha-adrenergic agonist
Reduction in halothane requirement by clonidine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist
The greatest concern with the use of an alpha-adrenergic agonist such as xylazine is the severe cardiopulmonary depressant effects.
However, because its use can result in poor muscle relaxation, muscle tremors, myotonic contractions, opisthotonus, and rough recovery, ketamine is rarely used alone (7-10); it is often paired with drugs such as alpha-adrenergic agonists, benzodiazepines, and propofol for chemical restraint and induction of anesthesia in birds.
Its action is similar to that of phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist
, (2) and it has been used for treating hypotension in doses of about 100 mg 3 times a day.
Clonidine is a alpha-adrenergic agonist
with sympatholytic activity[1-9] used in the treatment of hypertension.
Several general interventions assist in prevention of UI: preventing urinary tract infections and fecal impaction, controlling diabetes mellitus and heart failure, correcting hypercalemia, reducing diuretic fluids, avoiding physical or chemical restraints and managing medications that can cause UI (ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, beta- and alpha-adrenergic agonists
, alpha-adrenergic blockers, diuretics, cholinesterase inhibitors, psychotropics, narcotic analgesics and anticholinergics).
Topical alpha-adrenergic agonists
(Alphagan) decrease fluid production as well as increase fluid outflow.
Pharmaceuticals (see Table 1) including sedatives/hypnotics, narcotics, diuretics, anticholinergics, alpha-adrenergic agonists
or alpha-adrenergic blockers, and calcium channel blockers can contribute to the development and exacerbation of incontinence (Ghoniem & Hassouna, 1997).