Clonidine, a centrally acting alpha-adrenergic agonist
, is a safe and effective treatment for hypertension that has been available for decades.
The greatest concern with the use of an alpha-adrenergic agonist such as xylazine is the severe cardiopulmonary depressant effects.
However, because its use can result in poor muscle relaxation, muscle tremors, myotonic contractions, opisthotonus, and rough recovery, ketamine is rarely used alone (7-10); it is often paired with drugs such as alpha-adrenergic agonists, benzodiazepines, and propofol for chemical restraint and induction of anesthesia in birds.
Its action is similar to that of phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist
, (2) and it has been used for treating hypotension in doses of about 100 mg 3 times a day.
should rarely be used in older women because of the effect on hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and angina.
Several general interventions assist in prevention of UI: preventing urinary tract infections and fecal impaction, controlling diabetes mellitus and heart failure, correcting hypercalemia, reducing diuretic fluids, avoiding physical or chemical restraints and managing medications that can cause UI (ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, beta- and alpha-adrenergic agonists
, alpha-adrenergic blockers, diuretics, cholinesterase inhibitors, psychotropics, narcotic analgesics and anticholinergics).
Topical alpha-adrenergic agonists
(Alphagan) decrease fluid production as well as increase fluid outflow.