aldosteronism


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Related to aldosteronism: secondary aldosteronism

aldosteronism

 [al-dos´ter-ōn-izm″, al″do-ster´ōn-izm]
an abnormality of electrolyte metabolism produced by excessive secretion of aldosterone, it may be primary or occur secondarily in response to extra-adrenal disease. There may be hypertension, hypokalemia, alkalosis, muscular weakness, polyuria, and polydipsia. Called also hyperaldosteronism.
primary aldosteronism that arising from oversecretion of aldosterone, characterized typically by hypokalemia, alkalosis, muscular weakness, polyuria, polydipsia, hypertension, cardiac irregularity, and tetany. The most common etiologic factors are adrenal adenoma, idiopathic hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex, and occasionally carcinoma of the adrenal gland. Most adenomas affect only one of the two glands and therefore can be removed surgically without depriving the patient of a sufficient supply of adrenal cortical hormones. If removal of both glands is necessary, this creates a serious and potentially fatal insufficiency of the hormones. Called also Conn's syndrome.
pseudoprimary aldosteronism that caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and having the same signs and symptoms as primary aldosteronism.
secondary aldosteronism that due to extra-adrenal stimulation of aldosterone secretion; it is commonly associated with edematous states, as in nephrotic syndrome, hepatic cirrhosis, heart failure, and accelerated hypertension.

al·dos·ter·on·ism

(al-dos'tĕr-on-izm),
A disorder caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone.
Synonym(s): hyperaldosteronism

aldosteronism

/al·dos·ter·on·ism/ (al-dos´tĕ-ro-nizm) hyperaldosteronism; an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone.
primary aldosteronism  that due to oversecretion of aldosterone by an adrenal adenoma, marked by hypokalemia, alkalosis, muscular weakness, polyuria, polydipsia, and hypertension.
pseudoprimary aldosteronism  signs and symptoms identical to those of primary aldosteronism but caused by factors other than excessive aldosterone secretion.
secondary aldosteronism  that due to extra-adrenal stimulation of aldosterone secretion, usually associated with edematous states such as nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, heart failure, or malignant hypertension.

aldosteronism

(ăl-dŏs′tə-rō-nĭz′əm, ăl′dō-stĕr′ə-)
n.
A disorder marked by excessive secretion of aldosterone, characterized by weakness, cardiac irregularities, and abnormally high blood pressure.

aldosteronism

[al′dōstərō′nizəm, aldos′-]
a condition characterized by the hypersecretion of aldosterone, occurring as a primary disease of the adrenal cortex or, more often, as a secondary disorder in response to various extraadrenal pathological processes. Primary aldosteronism, also called Conn's syndrome, may be caused by adrenal hyperplasia or by an aldosterone-secreting adenoma. Secondary aldosteronism is associated with increased plasma renin activity and may be induced by nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, idiopathic edema, congestive heart failure, trauma, burns, or other kinds of stress. Also called hyperaldosteronism.
observations In many cases the only manifestation of Conn's syndrome is mild to moderate hypertension. Other signs and symptoms include episodic weakness, fatigue, paresthesia, polyuria, polydipsia, and nocturia. Glycosuria, hyperglycemia, and personality disturbances are occasionally manifested. Laboratory tests may show decreased plasma renin activity (measured after restricted sodium and/or diuretic therapy), increased aldosterone levels (measured after sodium loading), normal blood chemistry values, or hypernatremia and hypokalemia. A CT scan may be used to detect the presence of an adenoma.
interventions Treatment includes regular monitoring and control of blood pressure and hypokalemia with spironolactone, amiloride hydrochloride, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. A low-sodium diet, cessation of tobacco use, weight reduction (if indicated), and regular exercise are also advised. A unilateral adrenalectomy is performed if an adenoma or a carcinoma is present, and chemotherapy with mitotane may be an option.
nursing considerations Nurses should focus on blood pressure monitoring and education. Instruction is needed in the use and expected side effects of medications, including gynecomastia, menstrual irregularities, and reduced libido with spironolactone. Dietary management (low sodium) should be addressed and a regular exercise regimen established and monitored. Counseling or referrals should be made for those who use tobacco products. The patient and a family member should be taught to monitor blood pressure on a regular basis.

al·dos·ter·on·ism

(al-dos'tĕr-ŏn-izm)
A disorder caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone.
Synonym(s): hyperaldosteronism.

aldosteronism

The condition caused by excessive secretion of the adrenal HORMONE aldosterone. It features muscle weakness, high blood pressure (HYPERTENSION), ALKALOSIS, excessive urinary output and thirst.

Aldosteronism

A disorder caused by excessive production of the hormone aldosterone, which is produced by a part of the adrenal glands called the adrenal cortex. Causes include a tumor of the adrenal gland (Conn's syndrome), or a disorder reducing the blood flow through the kidney. This leads to overproduction of renin and angiotensin, and in turn causes excessive aldosterone production. Symptoms include hypertension, impaired kidney function, thirst and muscle weakness.

aldosteronism

excess aldosterone in blood, causing excess retention of Na+ and excess loss of K+ and H+ via the urine
  • primary aldosteronism; Conn's syndrome adrenal gland pathology (e.g. benign adenoma) with excess aldosterone secretion (see syndrome, Conn's)

  • secondary aldosteronism heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, liver cirrhosis or hypoproteinaemia stimulating increased secretion of aldosterone, with associated hypertension via increased plasma renin activity

al·dos·ter·on·ism

(al-dos'tĕr-ŏn-izm)
A dis-order caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone.

aldosteronism

an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone; hyperaldosteronism.

primary aldosteronism
that arising from oversecretion of aldosterone by an adrenal adenoma, characterized typically by hypokalemia, alkalosis, muscular weakness, polyuria, polydipsia and hypertension. Called also Conn's syndrome.
pseudoprimary aldosteronism
that caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and having the same signs and symptoms as primary aldosteronism.
secondary aldosteronism
that due to extra-adrenal stimulation of aldosterone secretion; it is associated with edematous states, as in nephrotic syndrome, hepatic cirrhosis and heart failure.
References in periodicals archive ?
The two main subtypes of primary aldosteronism are idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), also known as bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, which accounts for two-thirds of all cases, and unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma, which accounts for the remaining third.
Rapid cortisol assays improve the success rate of adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism.
The presence of primary aldosteronism in secondary hyperparathyroidism of vitamin D deficiency suggests that hyperparathyroidism might have a role in inducing primary aldosteronism.
Determination of the ARR is widely advocated as the preferred screening test for detecting primary aldosteronism (1).
Two cases of thyrotoxicosis and primary aldosteronism complicating hypokalemic periodic paralysis have been published in the literature to date (13,14).
Of interest, the presence of vitamin D deficiency in salt-sensitive hypertension of primary aldosteronism suggests that primary aldosteronism might have a role in inducing vitamin D deficiency.
A complete evaluation allows the clinician to distinguish adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, and Cushing‘s syndrome (which require surgical removal) from benign adenomas (which can be followed clinically).
Primary aldosteronism (PAL), a condition in which autonomous aldosterone overproduction leads to salt retention (causing hypertension and renin suppression) and potassium excretion, accounts for 5%-10% of hypertension, and if prolonged and severe enough, can lead to hypokalemia.
Primary aldosteronism occurs with increased frequency in these patients.
In patients with hypertension, the prevalence of primary aldosteronism ranges from 5% to 30%, and the rate is especially high among older patients, said J.