aldesleukin


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Related to aldesleukin: Proleukin

aldesleukin

 [al″des-loo´kin]
a recombinant interleukin-2 product used as an antineoplastic agent and biological response modifier in treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.

aldesleukin (interleukin-2, IL-2)

Proleukin

Pharmacologic class: Interleukin-2 (IL-2), human recombinant (cytokine)

Therapeutic class: Antineoplastic (miscellaneous)

Pregnancy risk category C

FDA Box Warning

• Give only to patients with normal cardiac and pulmonary function, as shown by thallium stress testing and pulmonary function testing. Use extreme caution when giving to patients with normal thallium stress test and normal pulmonary function tests who have a history of cardiac or pulmonary disease.

• Give under supervision of physician experienced in cancer chemotherapy, in setting where intensive care facilities and cardiopulmonary or intensive care specialists are available.

• Drug is linked to capillary leak syndrome, which causes hypotension and reduced organ perfusion (possibly severe and resulting in death).

• Before starting drug, preexisting bacterial infections must be treated, because drug may impair neutrophil function and increase disseminated infection risk. Patients with indwelling central lines are at special risk for infection with gram-positive microorganisms. Prophylactic antibiotics can help prevent staphylococcal infections.

• Withhold drug in patients who develop moderate to severe lethargy or somnolence; continued administration may cause coma.

Action

Activates cellular immunity and inhibits tumor growth by increasing lymphocytes and cytokines, which lyse tumor cells

Availability

Injection: 22 million international units/vial

Indications and dosages

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma

Adults older than age 18: 600,000 international units/kg I.V. given over 15 minutes q 8 hours for a maximum of 14 doses, followed by 9 days of rest. Repeat for another 14 doses, for a maximum of 28 doses per course.

Off-label uses

• Colorectal cancer
• Kaposi's sarcoma
• Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Arrhythmias, cardiac tamponade, seizures, severe GI bleeding, coma or toxic psychosis lasting more than 48 hours
• Organ allograft
• Abnormal thallium stress test or pulmonary function test results

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• anemia, bacterial infections, heart disease, CNS metastases, hepatic disease, pulmonary disease, renal disease, thrombocytopenia
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children.

Administration

• Make sure patient's thallium stress test and pulmonary function test results are normal before giving.

Don't give if patient is drowsy or severely lethargic; contact prescriber immediately.
• Reconstitute drug according to label directions with 1.2 ml of sterile water for injection by injecting diluent against side of vial (to prevent excessive foaming).
• Further dilute reconstituted dose with 50 ml of 5% dextrose injection.
• Administer I.V. infusion over 15 minutes.
• Don't use in-line filter.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, mental status changes, syncope, sensory or motor dysfunction, headache, fatigue, rigors, weakness, malaise, poor memory, depression, sleep disturbances, hallucinations

CV: bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, premature atrial complexes, premature ventricular contractions, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrest, capillary leak syndrome and severe hypotension, myocardial infarction EENT: reversible vision changes, conjunctivitis

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, stomatitis, anorexia, intestinal perforation, ileus, GI bleeding

GU: hematuria, proteinuria, dysuria, renal failure, oliguria or anuria Hematologic: anemia, purpura, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorders, leukopenia, leukocytosis

Hepatic: jaundice, ascites

Metabolic: hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, acidosis, alkalosis

Musculoskeletal: joint and back pain, myalgia

Respiratory: cough, chest pain, tachypnea, wheezing, dyspnea, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, apnea, pleural effusion

Skin: erythema, pruritus, rash, dry skin, petechiae, urticaria, exfoliative dermatitis

Other: weight gain or loss, fever, chills, edema, infection, pain or reaction at injection site, hypersensitivity reaction

Interactions

Drug-drug.Aminoglycosides, asparaginase, cytotoxic chemotherapy agents, doxorubicin, indomethacin, methotrexate: increased toxicity

Antihypertensives: increased hypotensive effect

Glucocorticoids: reduced antitumor effects

Drug-diagnostic tests.Alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium, transaminases: increased levels

Calcium, glucose, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, protein sodium, uric acid: decreased levels

Patient monitoring

• Monitor heart rate and rhythm, vital signs, and fluid intake and output.
• Assess for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reaction and infection.
• Monitor for adverse CNS effects. Report these immediately.
• Evaluate chest X-rays.
• Monitor CBC, electrolyte levels, and liver and kidney function test results.

Patient teaching

Tell patient that drug lowers resistance to infections. Advise him to immediately report fever, cough, breathing problems, and other signs or symptoms of infection.

Advise patient to immediately report chest pain, irregular or fast heart beats, easy bruising or bleeding, or abdominal pain.
• Instruct patient to minimize GI upset by eating small, frequent servings of food and drinking plenty of fluids.
• Provide dietary counseling. Refer patient to dietitian if adverse GI effects significantly limit food intake.
• Notify patient that he'll undergo blood testing and have chest X-rays taken during therapy.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

aldesleukin

/al·des·leu·kin/ (al″des-loo´kin) a recombinant interleukin-2 product used as an antineoplastic and biological response modifier.

aldesleukin

an antineoplastic agent.
indications This drug is used to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma in adults and metastatic melanoma. It is also used as a phase II treatment in HIV in combination with zidovudine.
contraindications Known hypersensitivity to this drug and abnormal thallium stress or pulmonary function tests prohibit this drug's use. This drug also must not be used in patients with organ allografts.
adverse effects Adverse effects of this drug include mental status changes, dizziness, sensory dysfunction, syncope, motor dysfunction, headache, impaired memory, depression, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, rigors, neuropathy, sinus tachycardia, dysrhythmias, bradycardia, PVCs, PACs, myocardial ischemia, reversible visual changes, stomatitis, anorexia, GI bleeding, dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, ascites, dysuria, dry skin, purpura, petechiae, urticaria, arthralgia, myalgia, pulmonary congestion, tachypnea, pleural effusion, wheezing, and infection. Common side effects include fever, chills, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pruritus, erythema, rash, and dyspnea. Life-threatening side effects include myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, capillary leak syncrome, cerebrovascular accident, intestinal perforation, oliguria, anuria, proteinuria, hematuria, renal failure, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, coagulation disorders, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, exfoliative dermatitis, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, and apnea.

aldesleukin

A term used in older literature for what is now designated interleukin 2 (IL-2).

aldesleukin

An INTERLEUKIN 2 drug made by genetic engineering. A brand name is Proleukin.

aldesleukin (al´dəslōō´kin),

n (interleukin-2, IL-2),
brand name: Proleukin;
drug class: antineoplastic;
action: enhancement of lymphocyte mitogenesis and stimulation of IL-2-dependent cell lines;
uses: metastatic renal cell carcinoma in adults.
References in periodicals archive ?
A retrospective analysis of high-dose aldesleukin (HD IL-2) following immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) in metastatic melanoma (mM) and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
Arlene Morris, chief executive officer of Syndax added, "We expect additional validation for entinostat's immune-modulatory activity from ongoing clinical trials including a Phase 2 study evaluating epigenetic priming to the PD-1 blocker nivolumab in non-small cell lung cancer and a Phase 2 study of entinostat in combination with aldesleukin (IL-2) in patients with advanced renal cell cancer.
The design of NKTR-214 provides dramatic efficacy in an aggressive and resistant preclinical model of melanoma, despite dosing 10-fold less cytokine at a significantly lower dosing frequency as compared to standard aldesleukin dosing," said Stephen Doberstein, Ph.