In New York State the estimated cost of caring for infants born with alcohol-related birth defects
in 1978 amounted to $155 million in lifetime care.
The study found that African-American women with the ADH1B*3 allele were less likely to bear children with alcohol-related birth defects than women without the allele.
For example, the ADH1B*3 allele, which has been found in up to one-fourth of people of African descent studied and which results in a higher rate of alcohol metabolism, was associated with a reduced likelihood of a family history of alcoholism, less positive response to alcohol, and protection against alcohol-related birth defects.
Alcohol dehydrogenase 2*3 allele protects against alcohol-related birth defects among African Americans.
Increased vulnerability to alcohol-related birth defects
in the offspring of mothers over 30.
Establishing the prevalence (1) and other epidemiological characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) (2) has been a difficult challenge ever since Jones and colleagues (Jones and Smith 1973; Jones et al.
Finally, in a recent study from New Zealand that used passive methods, pediatricians were asked to complete a postal survey designed to compile data about children with alcohol-related birth defects.
The term "prevalence" is used, in this article to describe the frequency of occurrence or presence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, (ARND) among the study population and any subgroups within the population at all time periods during the life span.
Detecting alcohol use among pregnant women is an important step toward preventing alcohol-related birth defects.
Such a marker could also help identify women at risk for alcohol use during subsequent pregnancies, help to detect underreporting of alcohol use during pregnancy, and facilitate research on dose-response relationships between alcohol exposure and alcohol-related birth defects (Stratton et al.
In addition, some prenatally exposed children without FAS facial features exhibit other alcohol-related physical abnormalities of the skeleton and certain organ systems; these anomalies are referred to as alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD).
A multiple-level comprehensive approach to the prevention of feral alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD).