The result of this early exposure to alcohol may lead to a range of negative outcomes referred to as either fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), or alcohol related birth defects (ARBD) (Goodlett 2005, Kvigne 2004, Welch-Carre 2005).
Research has provided some possible reasons for CNS impairment, however it is likely that a number of mechanisms interact to contribute to alcohol related birth defects to the CNS.
Therefore while the actual mechanism of damage to cell growth is unclear, it can be posited that alcohol's negative effects on cell growth may be, in part, responsible for alcohol related birth defects.
However it is known that women who are classed as alcoholic are at greatest risk of giving birth to an infant with alcohol related birth defects.
Factors such as lack of contraception, poor education, housing and nutrition, social acceptance of alcohol use and low socioeconomic status all contribute to the development of alcohol related birth defects (Elliott 2004).
We must prevent all injury and illness that is preventable in society, and alcohol related birth defects are completely preventable," Dr.
Based on the current, best science available we now know the following: * Alcohol consumed during pregnancy increases the risk of alcohol related birth defects, including growth deficiencies, facial abnormalities, central nervous system impairment, behavioral disorders, and intellectual development.