alcohol dependence


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Related to alcohol dependence: alcohol abuse, alcohol withdrawal, alcohol dependence syndrome

alcohol dependence

alcoholism

A condition characterised by a pathologic pattern of alcohol use causing a serious impairment in social or occupational functioning; also defined by the Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence & the American Society of Addiction Medicine as a “primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterised by … distortions in thinking, most notably denial.” A simpler, operational definition is persistent drinking that interferes with the person’s health, legal position, interpersonal relationships, or means of livelihood. Alcoholism is characterised by the regular intake of ≥75 g/day of alcohol.
Chronic effects Co-morbidity due to portal hypertension, hepatic failure, hyperoestrogenemia, infections (especially pneumonia) which may be due to alcohol-induced suppression of various immune defences, psychosocial disruption, transient hyperparathyroidism with decreased Ca2+, decreased Mg2+, osteoporosis.
Epidemiology (UK) 9% are heavy drinkers, 2% problem drinkers, 1% alcoholics.
Statistics (US) Alcohol causes half a million hospital admissions/year, 17,000 psychiatric admissions, 80% of all fire-related deaths, 65% of serious head injuries, 50% of homicides, 40% of RTAs/MVAs, 33% of divorces, 33% child abuse cases, 30% of fatal accidents, 30% of domestic accidents, 8 million working days lost, £1.6 billion annual cost to society.
Criteria for alcohol dependence
• Drinking >10 units/day
• Tolerance to effects of high blood alcohol concentration
• Withdrawal symptoms on stopping or reducing consumption
• Compulsion to continue drinking despite the problems it causes
• Abnormal lab tests.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gorwood said a popular misconception among clinicians is that focusing solely on antidepressant therapy in patients with major depressive disorder and comorbid alcohol dependence will reduce their risk of suicidal behavior.
Two FDA-approved therapies for alcohol dependence have been around for decades.
We found that some of the genes that influence alcohol dependence also influence binge eating in men and women," she added.
driving-while-intoxicated laws, family pressure, or employer mandate), natural history of alcohol dependence, and the tendency to revert to usual levels of drinking following resolution of a crisis where drinking had peaked (i.
Alcohol dependence is a progressive disease distinguished from alcohol abuse by chronic use, tolerance, and physical addiction.
Strategies for Identifying Genes Contributing to Alcohol Dependence
The authors reported that patients with alcohol dependence and risky behaviour had significantly higher scores on sensation seeking, impulsivity and addiction severity.
We found that a variety of conditions go along with alcohol dependence in families, including dependence on various drugs--marijuana, opiates, tobacco, stimulants, and sedatives.
Alcohol Dependence Syndrome was first described by a psychiatrist, Dr Griffith Edwards, in 1986.
Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and NMDA receptor function has been implicated in alcohol dependence.
1 million, of adults in England suffered from alcohol dependence.
Vivitrex is an investigational drug in development by Alkermes for the treatment of alcohol dependence.

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