retinopathy

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retinopathy

 [ret″ĭ-nop´ah-the]
any noninflammatory disease of the retina.
central serous retinopathy a usually self-limiting condition marked by acute localized detachment of the neural retina or retinal pigment epithelium in the region of the macula, with hypermetropia.
circinate retinopathy a condition marked by a circle of white spots enclosing the macular area, leading to complete foveal blindness.
diabetic retinopathy retinal manifestations of diabetes mellitus, including microaneurysms and punctate exudates. There are two major forms of diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative and proliferative. The nonproliferative form is characterized by dilation of the retinal veins and microaneurysms which may leak blood cells and/or plasma, causing internal hemorrhaging or edema in the retina. Edema in peripheral areas of the retina goes unnoticed by the patient and may go untreated, whereas edema occurring in the central retina (macula) causes noticeably decreased vision and is the primary cause of vision loss in nonproliferative disease. (See Atlas 4, Part D.) Treatment by local laser photocoagulation is aimed at sealing shut the breaks in the blood vessels and preventing additional leakage of fluid into the area. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in this disease to enhance a final visual outcome of stabilization and prevention of further loss of vision.



In proliferative diabetic retinopathy new blood vessels form near the optic disk, break through the inner membranous lining, and grow on the vitreous chamber and elsewhere in the retina and may rupture, causing gross vitreous hemorrhage. Additionally, fibrous tissue is generated secondary to the new blood vessel formation, and both the fibrous tissue and the new blood vessels become firmly attached to the posterior vitreous face. As the vitreous humor moves, the blood vessels and fibrous tissue cause tractional pulling on the retina and may result in separation or detachment of areas of retina. Panretinal laser photocoagulation is the definitive therapy. The study of early treatment for diabetic retinopathy proved the efficacy of this procedure in causing regression of the new blood vessels and prevention of vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachments, the two major causes of vision loss from this form of the disease.
exudative retinopathy a condition marked by masses of white or yellowish exudate in the posterior part of the fundus oculi, with deposits of cholestrin and blood debris from retinal hemorrhage, and leading to destruction of the macula and blindness.
hemorrhagic retinopathy retinopathy marked by profuse hemorrhaging in the retina, occurring in diabetes, occlusion of the central vein, and hypertension.
hypertensive retinopathy that associated with essential hypertension; changes may include irregular narrowing of the retinal arterioles, hemorrhages in the nerve fiber layers and the outer plexiform layer, exudates and cotton-wool patches, arteriosclerotic changes, and, in malignant hypertension, papilledema. (See also Atlas 4, Part C.)
leukemic retinopathy a condition occurring in leukemia, with paleness of the fundus resulting from infiltration of the retina and choroid with leukocytes, and swelling of the disk with blurring of its margin.
retinopathy of prematurity a disease of the developing retinal vasculature of the premature newborn. The incidence correlates with degree of prematurity; that is, the more premature the infant is, the greater the possibility of this condition occurring. The cause is vasoconstriction of retinal capillaries due to the presence of very high concentrations of oxygen in these blood vessels, which produces an overgrowth of retinal blood vessels. The vascular proliferation and exudation of blood and serum detaches the retina and produces scarring and inevitable blindness. To prevent retinopathy of prematurity it is recommended that oxygen be administered to premature newborns in as low a concentration and for as short a time as feasible. Careful monitoring of the newborn and evaluation of oxygen tension level are essential because no totally safe dosage of oxygen that will prevent the retinal changes has been found. Called also retrolental fibroplasia.
proliferative retinopathy the proliferative type of diabetic retinopathy.

ret·i·nop·a·thy

(ret'i-nop'ă-thē),
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the retina.
[retino- + G. pathos, suffering]

retinopathy

/ret·i·nop·a·thy/ (ret″ĭ-nop´ah-the) any noninflammatory disease of the retina.
circinate retinopathy  a condition in which a circle of white spots encloses the macula, leading to complete foveal blindness.
diabetic retinopathy  retinopathy associated with diabetes mellitus, which may be of the background type, progressively characterized by microaneurysms, intraretinal punctate hemorrhages, yellow, waxy exudates, cotton-wool patches, and macular edema, or of the proliferative type, characterized by neovascularization of the retina and optic disk, which may project into the vitreous, proliferation of fibrous tissue, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment.
exudative retinopathy  that marked by masses of white or yellowish exudate in the posterior part of the fundus oculi, with deposit of cholesterin and blood debris from retinal hemorrhage, and leading to destruction of the macula and blindness.
hypertensive retinopathy  that associated with essential or malignant hypertension; changes may include irregular narrowing of the retinal arterioles, hemorrhages in the nerve fiber layers and the outer plexiform layer, exudates and cotton-wool patches, arteriosclerotic changes, and, in malignant hypertension, papilledema.
retinopathy of prematurity  a bilateral retinopathy typically occurring in premature infants treated with high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, tortuosity, edema, retinal detachment, and fibrous tissue behind the lens.
proliferative retinopathy  the proliferative type of diabetic retinopathy.
renal retinopathy  a retinopathy associated with renal and hypertensive disorders and presenting the same symptoms as hypertensive retinopathy.
stellate retinopathy  a retinopathy not associated with hypertensive, renal, or arteriosclerotic disorders, but presenting the same symptoms as hypertensive retinopathy.

retinopathy

(rĕt′n-ŏp′ə-thē)
n. pl. retinopa·thies
1. Any of various disorders affecting the retina of the eye, marked by damage to retinal blood vessels, swelling of the retina, or abnormal growth of new blood vessels, and resulting in blurred vision, vision loss, or blindness.
2. Such a disorder occurring as a complication of untreated or improperly controlled diabetes mellitus. Also called diabetic retinopathy.

ret′i·no·path′ic (-ō-păth′ĭk) adj.

retinopathy

[ret′inop′əthē]
Etymology: L, rete + Gk, pathos, disease
a group of noninflammatory eye disorders. Major contributing conditions include diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerotic vascular disease.

retinopathy

A disorder that affects the retina. See Central serous retinopathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Hypertensive retinopathy, Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy, Retinitis, Retinopathy of prematurity.

ret·i·nop·a·thy

(ret'i-nop'ă-thē)
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the retina.
[Med. L. fr. L. rete, net + G. pathos, suffering]

retinopathy

Any non-inflammatory disease of the RETINA. Retinopathies include CENTRAL SEROUS RETINOPATHY, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY, retinopathy of prematurity (see RETROLENTAL FIBROPLASIA), RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA and retinopathy caused by drugs such as CHLOROQUINE and ETHAMBUTOL.

retinopathy

non-inflammatory retinal disease
  • background retinopathy increased capillary permeability, dilatation of retinal veins, microaneurysms which may involve the macula, haemorrhages which may extend into the vitreous humour of the eye and hard exudates (white/yellow lipid particles) around leaky capillaries; a presentation of diabetic retinopathy; may cause blindness

  • diabetic retinopathy retinal microvascular disease (e.g. punctate haemorrhages, microaneurysms, neovascularization, waxy exudates); characteristic of diabetic eye disease

  • proliferative retinopathy new retinal vessel formation often near the optic disc in response to capillary non-perfusion, venous irregularity, cluster haemorrhages and cotton wool spots in diabetic eye disease; vitreous haemorrhages cause sudden blindness; local fibrosis causes retinal detachment; treated by laser photocoagulation (destroys new retinal vessels, to prevent consequences of proliferative retinopathy)

retinopathy 

A disease of the retina. See retinitis; tritanopia.
arteriosclerotic retinopathy See arteriosclerosis.
background diabetic retinopathy A progressive microangiopathy of the retinal vessels occurring in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. It is characterized by microaneurysms, dot-blot haemorrhages, flame-shaped haemorrhages, hard exudates and retinal oedema. Retinal veins may also become dilated and tortuous. If the microvascular occlusion progresses there will be signs of ischaemia and multiple cotton-wool spots will appear, as well as more venous changes and maculopathy, producing the clinical picture of preproliferative diabetic retinopathy. If the macular oedema is not clinically significant the patient remains asymptomatic. Syn. non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).
central serous retinopathy (CSR) An accumulation of serous fluid in the subretinal space, which leads to a retinal detachment. It usually occurs in the central area of the retina and results in a sudden blurring and/or distortion of vision. The condition typically affects stressed men between the ages of 20 and 45 years. It subsides by itself within a few months in most cases; otherwise photocoagulation may be necessary. Syn. central serous chorioretinopathy.
diabetic retinopathy (DR) Retinal changes occurring in long standing cases of diabetes mellitus. It is the most common retinal vascular disease. In general, the severity of the retinopathy parallels the duration of the diabetes. The retinopathy is characterized by the presence of new blood vessels (neovascularization), which proliferate on or near the optic disc on the surface of the retina, microaneurysms (small round red spots) and sharply defined white or yellowish waxy exudates. Vitreous detachment is a likely outcome. If the vessels bleed, there can be a preretinal haemorrhage with visual loss. Both eyes are usually involved although to different degrees. Visual acuity may be unaffected unless the fovea is involved. After the condition has reached the stage of proliferative retinopathy, the principal treatment is with laser photocoagulation, which reduces the risk of further visual loss. Other treatments include intravitreal injections of a cortico-steroid (e.g. triamcinolone) or of an anti-VEGF drug such as bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Low vision aids may be needed afterward. Syn. diabetic retinitis; proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). See fluorescein angiography; diabetes; diabetic maculopathy; microaneurysm; proliferative retinopathy.
haemorrhagic retinopathy See retinal vein occlusion.
hypertensive retinopathy Retinal changes occurring as a result of systemic hypertension (essential hypertension). Most cases are chronic but in a very small percentage of patients it is acute (malignant hypertension). The condition is characterized by local and/or generalized narrowing of the arterioles, changes at arteriovenous crossings (Salus' sign) and 'copper-wire' arteriolar light reflex (grades 1 and 2). As the condition progresses, flame-shaped haemorrhages, cotton-wool exudates, oedema and changes at arteriovenous crossings (Gunn's crossing sign) appear (grade 3) and at the most advanced stage (grade 4) the arteriolar reflex becomes 'silver-wire' and papilloedema occurs. Patients are usually asymptomatic. Malignant hypertension (accelerated hypertension), which is typically found in young patients, is more damaging with involvement of the choroidal arteries (hypertensive choroidopathy), along with Elschnig's spots and Siegrist's streaks, optic neuropathy and exudative retinal detachment. Note: the grading of hypertensive retinopathy is the Keith-Wagener-Barker classification. See arteriosclerosis; exudate; hypertension; macular star; sphygmomanometer.
non-proliferative retinopathy See background diabetic retinopathy.
pigmentary retinopathy A term commonly used as a synonym of retinitis pigmentosa.
retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) A bilateral ret-inal disease which commonly affects premature infants exposed to high ambient oxygen concentrations. It is characterized by proliferation and tortuosity of blood vessels, usually with haemorrhages and retinal detachment accompanied by an accumulation of fibrous tissue on the surface of the retina. Some of the infants may develop cicatricial complications, which may be innocuous or may progress to cover the central region of the retina and cause blindness. Other complications may be myopia or glaucoma. This condition is less common now-adays. Syn. retrolental fibroplasias (RLF). See leukocoria.
proliferative retinopathy Neovascularization of the retina extending into the vitreous with connective tissue proliferation surrounding the vessels. The vessels usually arise from a retinal vein near an arteriovenous crossing at the posterior pole and from the surface of the optic disc. It occurs as a result of certain inflammatory conditions and in diabetes. Visual acuity may be affected. Syn. retinitis proliferans. See preretinal macular fibrosis; diabetic retinopathy; vitrectomy.
solar retinopathy Macular damage caused by fixating the sun without adequate protection, usually viewing a solar eclipse, but also in people staring at the sun as part of sun worship or psychosis. The retina presents at first with retinal oedema, which may develop into an atrophy of the tissue and produce a circumscribed hole or cyst in the fovea. This latter event results in a permanent central scotoma. There is no specific treatment but the condition can be prevented by wearing very dense light filters or viewing through photographic films. Syn. eclipse retinopathy; foveomacular retinitis; solar retinitis. See actinic; macular hole.
toxaemic retinopathy of pregnancy Sudden angiospasm of retinal arterioles, later followed by the typical picture of advanced hypertensive retinopathy. Restitution follows rapidly after the pregnancy has reached full term.
venous-stasis retinopathy See retinal vein occlusion.

ret·i·nop·a·thy

(ret'i-nop'ă-thē)
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the retina.
[Med. L. fr. L. rete, net + G. pathos, suffering]

retinopathy (ret´ənôp´əthē),

n a disease of the retina, excluding retinitis. Often named for the underlying condition which causes it, such as diabetic retinopathy.

retinopathy

any noninflammatory disease of the retina; occurs in systemic disorders, e.g. nephritis, diabetes mellitus and in a number of poisonings in agricultural animals. Examples are poisoning by Astragalus, Oxytropis, Pteridium spp.

diabetic retinopathy
retinal manifestations of diabetes mellitus, including microaneurysms and punctate exudates, occur in dogs but are often obscured by cataract formation.
hypertensive retinopathy
that associated with hypertension; seen in dogs and cats. There is sudden loss of vision, retinal hemorrhages and detachment, and sometimes glaucoma.
nutritional retinopathy
may occur with deficiency of vitamin A or E, or taurine.
senile retinopathy
retinal thinning, cyst formation, atrophy and fibrosis occur in aged dogs and horses.
toxic retinopathy
see bright blindness.