airway obstruction


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airway obstruction

a mechanical impediment to the delivery of air to the lungs or to the absorption of oxygen in the lungs.
observations If the obstruction is minor, as in sinusitis or pharyngitis, the person is able to breathe, but not normally. If the obstruction is acute, the person may grasp the neck, gasp, become cyanotic, and lose consciousness.
interventions Acute airway obstruction requires rapid intervention to save the person's life. In cases of obstruction caused by a bolus of food, a collection of mucus, or a foreign body, the object may be removed manually, by suction, or with the Heimlich maneuver. Obstruction caused by an inflammatory or allergic reaction may be treated with bronchodilating drugs, corticosteroids, intubation, and administration of oxygen. An emergency tracheotomy may be required if the obstruction cannot be mechanically or pharmacologically relieved within a few minutes.
nursing considerations The patient is usually very apprehensive and may physically resist assistance. Medical help is summoned, and emergency care is begun and includes removing the obstruction, administering oxygen, and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, if necessary. See also aspiration.

air·way ob·struc·tion

(ār'wā ŏb-strŭk'shŭn)
A type of respiratory dysfunction that produces reduced airflow, usually on expiration; the obstruction can be localized (e.g., tumor, stricture, foreign body) or generalized (e.g., emphysema, asthma).

air·way ob·struc·tion

(ār'wā ŏb-strŭk'shŭn)
Respiratory dysfunction that reduces airflow, usually on expiration; can be localized or generalized.

airway

1. the passage by which air enters and leaves the lungs.
2. a mechanical device used for securing unobstructed respiration during general anesthesia or other occasions in which the patient is not ventilating or exchanging gases properly. Includes an endotracheal tube and a tracheostomy tube.

artificial airway
endotracheal or tracheostomy tubes.
airway obstruction
in the unanesthetized animal is usually caused by vomitus or laryngeal spasm due to foreign material in the larynx. In the nonintubated anesthetized animal, it is caused by caudal displacement of the tongue and epiglottis, accumulation of mucus, saliva and blood in the pharynx or laryngeal spasm resulting from that accumulation. In the intubated animal, faulty placement or functioning of the endotracheal tube or kinking of it can cause obstruction of the airway. The signs of obstruction are deep, asphyxial respirations, struggling and great agitation in the conscious animal. Deeply anesthetized animals simply show a decline in respiratory efficiency.
airway reflexes
aid in the removal of secretions and foreign material. See also cough, sneeze.
airway resistance
the resistance to airflow through the respiratory tree and any addition to the airway, such as the endotracheal tube and connectors in a closed circuit anesthetic machine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Acute airway obstruction due to spontaneous intrathyroid hemorrhage precipitated by anticoagulation therapy.
Therefore, CHAOS has three possible presentations: (1) complete laryngeal atresia without an esophageal fistula, (2) complete laryngeal atresia with a TEF, and (3) near complete high upper airway obstruction.
Stridor, respiratory distress and cyanosis are late signs of impending airway obstruction - often too late for controlled re-intubation of the trachea.
Patients with severe airway obstruction often have reduced DLCO values compared to what they would have without obstruction.
It is assumed that if the PEFR improves with treatment, the degree of airway obstruction decreases.
The possibility of the patient self-ventilating through the catheter may avoid a severe form of airway obstruction.
Symptoms of upper airway obstruction vary depending on the cause (1), but some symptoms are common to all types of airway blockage.
No airway obstruction was seen and swelling disappeared completely within the next 12 hours.
The VisoV can't distinguish between airway obstruction as found in asthma or bronchitis versus the obstruction caused in loss of elastic recoil found with emphysema.
We describe the case of a 27-year-old man who was admitted to an emergency department with signs of upper airway obstruction secondary to an obstructive mass.
When neonates present with severe airway obstruction resulting from micrognathia, various methods are used to alleviate their symptoms.
It is a wonder that by just glancing at a flow-volume loop, for example, without regarding the numbers, we can ascertain so much information about a patient's lung function: restriction versus obstruction and degree, response to bronchodilator, fixed versus variable extra thoracic airway obstruction, patient effort and consistency, indication of sleep apnea, indication of lung rejection, and lung hyper reactivity.