agoraphobia

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Agoraphobia

 

Definition

The word agoraphobia is derived from Greek words literally meaning "fear of the marketplace." The term is used to describe an irrational and often disabling fear of being out in public.

Description

Agoraphobia is just one type of phobia, or irrational fear. People with phobias feel dread or panic when they face certain objects, situations, or activities. People with agoraphobia frequently also experience panic attacks, but panic attacks, or panic disorder, are not a requirement for a diagnosis of agoraphobia. The defining feature of agoraphobia is anxiety about being in places from which escape might be embarrasing or difficult, or in which help might be unavailable. The person suffering from agoraphobia usually avoids the anxiety-provoking situation and may become totally housebound.

Causes and symptoms

Agoraphobia is the most common type of phobia, and it is estimated to affect between 5-12% of Americans within their lifetime. Agoraphobia is twice as common in women as in men and usually strikes between the ages of 15-35.
The symptoms of the panic attacks which may accompany agoraphobia vary from person to person, and may include trembling, sweating, heart palpitations (a feeling of the heart pounding against the chest), jitters, fatigue, tingling in the hands and feet, nausea, a rapid pulse or breathing rate, and a sense of impending doom.

Key terms

Benzodiazepines — A group of tranquilizers often used to treat anxiety.
Desensitization — A treatment for phobias which involves exposing the phobic person to the feared situation. It is often used in conjunction with relaxation techniques.
Phobia — An intense and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation.
Agoraphobia and other phobias are thought to be the result of a number of physical and environmental factors. For instance, they have been associated with biochemical imbalances, especially related to certain neurotransmitters (chemical nerve messengers) in the brain. People who have a panic attack in a given situation (e.g., a shopping mall) may begin to associate the panic with that situation and learn to avoid it. According to some theories, irrational anxiety results from unresolved emotional conflicts. All of these factors may play a role to varying extents in different cases of agoraphobia.

Diagnosis

People who suffer from panic attacks should discuss the problem with a physician. The doctor can diagnose the underlying panic or anxiety disorder and make sure the symptoms aren't related to some other underlying medical condition.
The doctor makes the diagnosis of agoraphobia based primarily on the patient's description of his or her symptoms. The person with agoraphobia experiences anxiety in situations where escape is difficult or help is unavailable-or in certain situations, such as being alone. While many people are somewhat apprehensive in these situations, the hallmark of agoraphobia is that a person's active avoidance of the feared situation impairs his or her ability to work, socialize, or otherwise function.

Treatment

Treatment for agoraphobia usually consists of both medication and psychotherapy. Usually, patients can benefit from certain antidepressants, such as amitriptyline (Elavil), or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as paroxetine (Paxil), fluoxetine (Prozac), or sertraline (Zoloft). In addition, patients may manage panic attacks in progress with certain tranquilizers called benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam (Xanax) or clonazepam (Klonipin).
The mainstay of treatment for agoraphobia and other phobias is cognitive behavioral therapy. A specific technique that is often employed is called desensitization. The patient is gradually exposed to the situation that usually triggers fear and avoidance, and, with the help of breathing or relaxation techniques, learns to cope with the situation. This helps break the mental connection between the situation and the fear, anxiety, or panic. Patients may also benefit from psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy, discussing underlying emotional conflicts with a therapist or support group.

Prognosis

With proper medication and psychotherapy, 90% of patients will find significant improvement in their symptoms.

Resources

Periodicals

Forsyth, Sondra. "I Panic When I'm Alone." Mademoiselle April 1998: 119-24.

Organizations

American Psychiatric Association. 1400 K Street NW, Washington DC 20005. (888) 357-7924. http://www.psych.org.
Anxiety Disorders Association of America. 11900 Park Lawn Drive, Ste. 100, Rockville, MD 20852. (800) 545-7367. http://www.adaa.org.
National Institute of Mental Health. Mental Health Public Inquiries, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 15C-05, Rockville, MD 20857. (888) 826-9438. http://www.nimh.nih.gov.

agoraphobia

 [ag″or-ah-fo´be-ah]
an anxiety disorder characterized by intense, irrational fear of open spaces, especially a marked fear of being alone or of being in public places where escape would be difficult or help might be unavailable. It may be associated with panic attacks (see panic disorder) or may occur independently (officially called agoraphobia without history of panic disorder).
agoraphobia without history of panic disorder agoraphobia with fear of having an attack of one or only a few incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms, which the person may or may not have had in the past, rather than a full panic attack.

a·gor·a·pho·bi·a

(ag'ōr-ă-fō'bē-ă), Avoid the mispronunciation agor'aphobia. Do not confuse this word with acarophobia or acrophobia.
A mental disorder characterized by an irrational fear of leaving the familiar setting of home, or venturing into the open, so pervasive that a large number of external life situations are entered into reluctantly or are avoided; often associated with panic attacks.
[G. agora, marketplace, + phobos, fear]

agoraphobia

/ag·o·ra·pho·bia/ (ag″or-ah-fo´be-ah) intense, irrational fear of open spaces, sometimes occurring in association with panic attacks.

agoraphobia

(ə-gôr′ə-fō′bē-ə, ăg′ər-ə-)
n.
An anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear or anxiety about being in open or public places.

a·gor′a·phobe′ n.
a·gor′a·pho′bi·ac′ (-ăk′) n.
a·gor′a·pho′bic adj. & n.

agoraphobia

[ag′orə-]
Etymology: Gk, agora, marketplace, phobos, fear
an anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being in an open, crowded, or public place, such as a field, tunnel, bridge, congested street, or busy department store, where escape is perceived as difficult or help not available in case of sudden incapacitation.

Agoraphobia

Morbid fear of open spaces, crowded public places (markets, malls, crowds) or leaving home. Agoraphobia differs from phobic states which are more limited and are evoked by a specific palette of situations. It is characterised by generalised anxiety and is associated with panic attacks. It has an early adult onset, 2:1 female:male ratio, often arises in an abnormal physiologic and psychologic substrate and responds poorly to therapy.

agoraphobia

Psychology Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded, public places like markets; fear of leaving a safe place. See Phobia. Cf Monophobia, PAD syndrome.

ag·or·a·pho·bi·a

(ag'ŏr-ă-fō'bē-ă)
A mental disorder characterized by an irrational fear of leaving the familiar setting of home, or venturing into the open; often associated with panic attacks.
[G. agora, marketplace, + phobos, fear]

agoraphobia

An abnormal fear of open spaces or of being alone or in public places. Agoraphobia may be so severe that the sufferer refuses to leave his or her own home and becomes permanently house-bound. It is the commonest of the phobias. The term derives from the Greek agora , an open assembly place or market and phobia , fear or horror.

ag·or·a·pho·bi·a

(ag'ŏr-ă-fō'bē-ă)
Mental disorder characterized by irrational fear of leaving the familiar setting of home or venturing into the open.
[G. agora, marketplace, + phobos, fear]

agoraphobia (ag´ərəfō´bēə),

n an anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being in an open, crowded, or public place where escape may be difficult or help may not be available if needed.

agoraphobia

in animals, a reluctance to go outside. Includes companion animals and especially horses that have been kept in stables for long periods. See also barn rat.
References in periodicals archive ?
PCT includes psychoeducation, cognitive strategies, and exposure-based procedures designed to reduce fear of somatic sensations and agoraphobic situations.
Several meta-analyses and reviews have examined the efficacy of CBT and exposure treatments for agoraphobic symptoms.
A later meta-analysis examined the differences in behavior therapies on agoraphobic symptoms (Trull, Nietzel, & Main, 1988).
As a result of these findings, the present paper will focus only on in vivo exposure for agoraphobic symptoms.
Agoraphobics today can find instant understanding by entering a virtual chatroom where everyone is suffering from a phobia.
Sheila is in no doubt as to how useful the Internet is for agoraphobics because it provides instant tips on how to beat your fears.
I am currently in touch with an Australian girl who is agoraphobic and worried about a forthcoming trip to England.
Revealing more about his tryst with the role, he said that it is very difficult to play an agoraphobic, especially with a baby.
The claustrophobics dived for the door, while the agoraphobics had to be dragged out.