441) "Although these policies could create local agglomerative
benefits if only one local government engaged in them, they did not produce net national economic gain, as they created inefficient subsidy competition, political manipulation of the railroad industry, and over-investment.
To explore the structure of a data set, we use hierarchical agglomerative
classification that gives information about separate areas of high density of records that are represented by clusters.
Jaccard's coefficient (Jaccard, 1908) and sequential agglomerative
hierarchical and nested Clustering (SAHN) feature of NTSYS- pc version 2.
Ward's hierarchical agglomerative
clustering method was used, with squared Euclidean distance as the index of pairwise similarity-dissimilarity between participant profiles.
Taken together these circumstances seriously reinforce the agglomerative
advantages of the established pattern of activity, especially in the more complex business service and manufacturing activities.
It cannot be targeted at firms that provide agglomerative
spillover benefits for the city, it provides far less benefits to firms than would cash subsidies of equal value, and it generates costs that are not included in a city's public budget and hence are hidden from ordinary group competition for scarce public resources.
Initially, we performed an agglomerative
hierarchical cluster analysis using SPSS version 15.
Regional scientists, demographers, human geographers, and scholars in other disciplines have studied the history of population distribution and settlement patterns, and explored geophysical, agglomerative
, and urbanization determinants of changes (Jaret 1983; Moore and Thorsnes 1994; Morris 1994).
1) An agglomerative
hierarchical clustering method with complete linkage was used to produce a range of solutions up to one-tenth of the sample size, from 2-15 clusters.
hierarchical clustering is a technique that proceeds by a series of step-wise successive fusions of n individuals into a final group of n members.
First, human capital externalities act as an agglomerative
force in which productivity leads to higher wages.
hierarchical clustering techniques start with as many groups as observations.