The empirical evidence is clear that most blacks got themselves out of poverty in the decades preceding the civil rights revolution of the 1960S and the beginning of affirmative action
in the 1970s," Sowell writes.
I entered New York University (NYU) before there was no such a thing as affirmative action
Our focus is on community colleges in states that have not proscribed the use of affirmative action
in student admissions.
Extrapolating from the results, Lowery says, "White people may say, and believe, they're not supporting affirmative action
because it creates inequities, but in many cases the reason they think it's unfair is because they think it's hurting their group.
Now that the Republicans and their rightwing Democratic allies have chosen to make affirmative action
their racist "wedge" issue of the year, constructing a reasonable, honest, and progressive perspective on affirmative action
is particularly important.
Harvey feels the Michigan ruling was a serious setback for conservatives and that until the membership of the Supreme Court changes significantly, their next legal challenges will test affirmative action
on a different ground than education--perhaps in employment.
As employers were developing goals and timetables for hiring, universities began their own version of affirmative action
through a variety of efforts--focusing initially on admissions, but later expanding to recruitment, retention, counseling, and a host of curricular reforms that laid the framework for the various "ethnic studies" programs that grew significantly throughout the 1970s.
In 1987, Wilson willingly conceded that affirmative action
programs predominantly benefit better-off minority group members rather than the really needy: "if policies of preferential treatment .
Some have argued that affirmative action
was always a limited legislation, a mostly symbolic reform cooked up to placate much broader demands for social and economic justice, and that we would be better off without the charade.
20) To enjoy this protection, the employer must extend, at a minimum, preference pursuant to a written, dated affirmative action
plan that follows the EEOC guidelines discussed hereafter.
Connerly, who has taken his crusade against what he calls racial preferences nationwide with campaigns in Washington and Florida, said the figures vindicate his argument that the old system of affirmative action
didn't do much more than create ill will.
Anti-quota activist Ward Connerly on the end of affirmative action
and the battle for a raceless society