Contort aestivation in many cases also results in asymmetric petals: Sida, Malva, Hibiscus, Kielmeyera, Dombeva, Linum austriacaum, Oxalis floribunda, O.
Asymmetric flowers are lacking, except for flowers with spiral or irregular floral phyllotaxis (here not considered), and flowers with contort aestivation in each perianth whorl (Cabomba, Cabombaceae) (Endress, 2008a).
It comes about by spiral or irregular phyllotaxis (here not considered), or by contort aestivation of petals (some Papaveraceae, Schoute, 1935), or with irregularity superimposed on monosymmetry (Eupteleaceae, Endress, 1986a, 2008b; Ren et al.
A number of families have representatives with contort petal aestivation, such as Bonnetiaceae (Lleras, 1972; Maguire, 1972; Kubitzki.
In several clades contort petal aestivation occurs, such as in some Lychnideae of Caryophyllaceae (Schoute, 1935), some Droseraceae (Eichler, 1878), Plumbaginaceae (Schoute, 1935), and Tamaricaceae (Eichler, 1878; Correll & Correll, 1982).
Calycine colleters absent; corolla salveriform; corolla-lobe aestivation usually sinistrorse (dextrorse in Kopsia, Neisosperma, and Ochrosia); corona absent; style head usually with stigmatic region beneath basal collar; disc normally present; ovary apocarpous (in some Rauvolfia spp.
Leaves opposite; calycine colleters present or absent; corolla salveriform; corolline corona absent; corolla-lobe aestivation almost always sinistrorse; apical connective appendages of anthers often scarcely developed; style head usually with stigmatic region beneath basal collar, sometimes body uniformly receptive; ovary congenitally syncarpous; disc mostly adnate or indistinct from ovary.
Calycine colleters mostly present, often multiseriate; corolla salveriform or rarely funnelform; corolla lobes often in-flexed in bud; aestivation almost always sinistrorse; corona mostly absent; anthers with lignified guide rails; style head with stigmatic region beneath basal collar or flange and usually with (often 5-ribbed) upper wreath or style head subglobose and without basal collar and upper wreath and body uniformly receptive; ovary apocarpous or syncarpous; disc adnate, indistinct, or free.
Galycine colleters usually absent; corolla salveriform; corolla-lobe aestivation sinistrorse; small corolline corona often present in petal sinuses (well developed and often annular in Melodinus); anther connective with a apical extension in Diplorhynchus and Dyera and with both apical connective extension and small sterile basal lobes in Pycnobotrya; style head mostly without basal collar or upper wreath; disc usually absent; ovary apocarpous or syncarpous, sometimes only at base (Diplorhynchus), more than half inferior in Dyera.