aerobic respiration


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respiration

 [res″pĭ-ra´shun]
1. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells, including inhalation and exhalation, diffusion of oxygen from the pulmonary alveoli to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli, followed by the transport of oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body cells. See also ventilation (def. 2) and see Plates.
2. the metabolic processes by which living cells break down carbohydrates, amino acids, and fats to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); called also cell respiration.
The Respiratory Sequence. The sequence of the respiration process begins as air enters the corridors of the nose or mouth, where it is warmed and moistened. The air then passes through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea and into the bronchi.



The bronchi branch in the lungs into smaller and smaller bronchioles, ending in clusters of tiny air sacs called alveoli; there are 750 million alveoli in the lungs. The blood flows through the lungs in the pulmonary circulation. Through the thin membrane of the network of capillaries around the alveoli, the air and the blood exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide molecules migrate from the erythrocytes in the capillaries through the porous membrane into the air in the alveoli, while the oxygen molecules cross from the air into the red blood cells.

The erythrocytes proceed through the circulatory system, carrying the oxygen in loose combination with hemoglobin and giving it up to the body cells that need it. In cellular respiration the blood cells release oxygen and pick up carbon dioxide. The lungs dispose of the carbon dioxide, left there by the red blood cells, in the process of breathing. With each breath, about one-sixth of the air in the lungs is exchanged for new air.
Breathing. The lungs inflate and deflate 16 to 20 times per minute in adults, 12 to 20 per minute in teenagers, 20 to 30 per minute in children 2 to 12 years old, and 30 to 50 per minute in newborns. Their elastic tissue allows them to expand and contract like a bellows worked by the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles. The diaphragm contracts, flattening itself downward, and thus enlarges the thoracic cavity. At the same time the ribs are pulled up and outward by the action of the narrow but powerful intercostal muscles that expand and contract the rib cage. As the chest expands, the air flows in. Exhalation occurs when the respiratory muscles relax and the chest returns automatically to its minimum size, expelling the air (see also lung).
Automatic Breathing Controls. The automatic control of breathing stems from poorly defined areas known as the respiratory centers, located in the medulla oblongata and pons. From there, impulses are sent down the spinal cord to the nerves that control the diaphragm, and to the intercostal muscles. Chemical and reflex signals control these nerve centers. (See hering-breuer reflexes.)

The chemical controls of breathing are mainly dependent on the level of carbon dioxide in the blood. The response is so sensitive that if the carbon dioxide level increases two-tenths of 1 per cent, the respiratory rate increases automatically to double the amount of air taken in, until the excess of carbon dioxide is eliminated. It is not lack of oxygen but excess of carbon dioxide that causes this instant and powerful reaction.

The carbon dioxide tension (Pco2), of arterial blood normally is 35 to 45 mm Hg. When the Pco2 increases, the respiratory centers are stimulated and breathing becomes more rapid; conversely, decrease of the Pco2 slows the rate of respiration. The Pco2 acts both directly on the respiratory centers and on the carotid and aortic bodies, chemoreceptors that are responsive to changes in blood Pco2, Po2, and pH (see also blood gas analysis).
Protective Respiratory Mechanisms. The lungs are constantly exposed to the surrounding atmosphere. Twenty times a minute, more or less, they take in a gaseous mixture, along with whatever foreign particles happen to be suspended in it and at whatever temperature it may be. To compensate, the lungs have some remarkable protective devices.



On its way through the nasal passage, the cold air from outside is preheated by a large supply of blood, which gives off warmth through the thin mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract. This same mucous lining is always moist, and dry air picks up moisture as it passes.

Dust, soot, and bacteria are filtered out by a barrier of cilia, tiny hairlike processes that line the passageways of the respiratory tract. The cilia trap not only foreign particles but also mucus produced by the respiratory passages themselves. Since the movement of the cilia is always toward the outside, they move the interfering matter upward, away from the delicate lung tissues, so that it can be expectorated or swallowed. Particles that are too large for the cilia to dispose of usually stimulate a sneeze or a cough, which forcibly expels them. Sneezing and coughing are reflex acts in response to stimulation of nerve endings in the respiratory passages. The stimulus for a cough comes from the air passages in the throat; for a sneeze, from those in the nose.
abdominal respiration inspiration accomplished mainly by the diaphragm.
aerobic respiration oxidative transformation of certain substrates into high-energy chemical compounds; see also adenosine triphosphate.
artificial respiration see artificial respiration.
Biot's respiration breathing characterized by irregular periods of apnea alternating with periods in which four or five breaths of identical depth are taken; seen in patients with increased intracranial pressure associated with spinal meningitis and other central nervous system disorders.
cell respiration respiration (def. 2).
Cheyne-Stokes respiration see cheyne-stokes respiration.
cogwheel respiration breathing with jerky inhalation.
diaphragmatic respiration that performed mainly by the diaphragm.
electrophrenic respiration induction of respiration by electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve; see phrenic pacemaker. Called also diaphragmatic or phrenic pacing.
external respiration the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.
internal respiration the exchange of gases between the body cells and the blood.
Kussmaul's respiration a distressing, paroxysmal dyspnea affecting both inspiration and expiration, characterized by increased respiratory rate (above 20 per minute), increased depth of respiration, panting, and labored respiration; seen in diabetic acidosis and coma and renal failure. Called also air hunger.
paradoxical respiration see paradoxical respiration.
tissue respiration internal respiration.
respiration (omaha) in the omaha system, a client problem in the physiologic domain, defined as the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body.

aer·o·bic res·pi·ra·tion

a form of respiration in which molecular oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide and water are produced.

aer·o·bic res·pi·ra·tion

(ār-ō'bik res'pir-ā'shŭn)
A form of respiration in which molecular oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide and water are produced.
Aerobic respirationclick for a larger image
Fig. 17 Aerobic respiration . Summary of products in aerobic respiration.
Aerobic respirationclick for a larger image
Fig. 16 Aerobic respiration . The products of one molecule of glucose undergoing aerobic respiration; net figures in brackets.

aerobic respiration

a type of CELLULAR RESPIRATION that requires oxygen. GLUCOSE is broken down to release energy in a series of steps which can be grouped into three main stages:

Stage 1: glucose is converted to PYRUVIC ACID (pyruvate) in a process called GLYCOLYSIS which takes place in the cell CYTOPLASM.

A stable glucose molecule is first energized by the addition of a phosphate group from two ATP molecules (PHOSPHORYLATION) and then broken down to two molecules of three-carbon phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL) (glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate). Each PGAL molecule is oxidized by removal of two hydrogen atoms which are picked up by an NAD molecule. Since oxygen is present, NADH can undergo a MITOCHONDRIAL SHUNT to enter an ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM (ETS); See Fig. 16 . Four molecules of ATP are then synthesized in SUBSTRATE-LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION over several steps, giving a net gain of two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose. Glycolysis is completed with the production of two molecules of three-carbon pyruvic acid (pyruvate) .

Stage 2 : oxidation and DECARBOXYLATION of pyruvic acid (pyruvate), which occurs in the MITOCHONDRIA in eukaryotes, to form two molecules of two-carbon ACETYLCOENZYME A (acetyl-CoA). CO2 is released in this process, together with two hydrogen atoms per pyruvic acid (pyruvate) molecule, which are picked up by NAD and passed down an ETS located on the inner membranes of mitochondrial cristae. Three molecules of ATP are produced per NADH, with oxygen acting as the final acceptor of hydrogen, producing water.

Stage 3: entry of acetyl-CoA into the KREBS CYCLE (TCA cycle). Each molecule of acetyl-CoA can turn the cycle once. As each glucose molecule is broken down to two acetyl-CoA molecules, the cycle will turn twice per glucose molecule, yielding 2 x 2 molecules of CO2 and 2x8 atoms of hydrogen. Six pairs of hydrogen atoms are picked up by NAD to produce 18 (6 × 3) molecules of ATP via the ETS. The remaining two pairs of hydrogen atoms are accepted by FAD molecules which move to the ETS to produce 4 (2 × 2) molecules of ATP. One molecule of ATP is produced directly by substrate-level phosphorylation for each turn of the cycle. For each molecule of glucose undergoing aerobic respiration the products are as shown in Fig. 16. The three stages are summarized in Fig. 17.

Note that the net production of ATP per molecule of glucose is 38 molecules since two were required at the start of glycolysis. Of these 38 ATP molecules only two (about 5%) are synthesized without oxygen (i.e. anaerobically); the other 36 are the product of aerobic respiration. Fats and proteins can also undergo aerobic respiration, entering the reactions at various stages; see ACETYLCOENZYME A for details.

aerobic respiration,

n an energy-yielding cellular process that efficiently breaks down glucose molecules by combining oxygen with hydrogen ions to produce large amounts of ATP and carbon dioxide.

respiration

1. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells, including inspiration and expiration, diffusion of oxygen from the pulmonary alveoli to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli, and the transport of oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body cells.
2. cellular respiration, the metabolic processes by which living cells break down carbohydrates, amino acids and fats to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

abdominal respiration
inspiration and expiration accomplished mainly by the abdominal muscles and diaphragm. Occurs in acute pleurisy because of pain in the chest and fixation of the thorax, and tick paralysis due to paralysis of the intercostal muscles.
aerobic respiration
oxidative transformation of certain substrates into secretory products, the released energy being used in the process of assimilation.
anaerobic respiration
respiration in which energy is released by chemical reactions in which free oxygen takes no part.
artificial respiration
that maintained by force applied to the body. Called also artificially assisted respiration.
artificially assisted respiration
see artificial respiration (above).
Biot's r's
rapid, deep respirations with abrupt pauses in breathing. See also biot's respirations.
cell respiration
the processes in the living cell by which organic substances are oxidized and chemical energy is released.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
breathing characterized by rhythmic waxing and waning of respiration depth, with regularly recurring apneic periods. See also cheyne-stokes respiration.
cogwheel respiration
breathing with jerky inspiration.
controlled respiration
during general anesthesia using an endotracheal tube with an inflated cuff, the animal's respiration can be controlled completely by compression alternating with relaxation on the rebreathing bag of the breathing circuit. See also intermittent positive-pressure ventilation.
costal respiration
the respiratory movements are mostly carried out by the chest wall.
diaphragmatic respiration
that performed mainly by the diaphragm.
electrophrenic respiration
induction of respiration by electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve.
external respiration
the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.
internal respiration
the exchange of gases between the body cells and the blood.
Kussmaul's respiration
labored respiration
see dyspnea.
respiration monitors
machines that monitor respiratory movement and efficiency are most desirable during anesthesia. They include rate monitors, apnea alarms, tidal and minute volume monitoring respirometers, infrared gas analyzers to measure carbon dioxide content of end-tidal air,
paradoxical respiration
that in which a lung, or a portion of a lung, is deflated during inspiration and inflated during expiration. See also paradoxical respiration.
tissue respiration
internal respiration.
References in periodicals archive ?
Like aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration also breaks down glucose, but instead of carbon dioxide and water the reaction produces a chemical called pyruvic acid.
Superoxide anions are cytotoxic metabolites and are byproducts of normal aerobic respiration, particularly from energy-producing reactions occurring in the mitochondria.
The next step is to describe that carbon dioxide given off by roots as a product of aerobic respiration reacts with water in the soil solution to form carbonic acid that dissociates to a proton and a bicarbonate ion.
I have no idea which players they were but there were good genes in there, things which would positively affect their performance, such as their ability to have better aerobic respiration, which would give them more stamina on the pitch," the Daily Mail quoted him as saying.
Facultative bacteria produce ATP via aerobic respiration when oxygen is available, but are capable of switching to fermentation to create ATP anaerobically.