adhesive peritonitis


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peritonitis

 [per″i-to-ni´tis]
inflammation of the peritoneum.
Acute Peritonitis. Acute peritonitis may be produced by inflammation of abdominal organs, by irritating substances from a perforated gallbladder or gastric ulcer, by rupture of a cyst, or by irritation from blood, as in cases of internal bleeding.
Symptoms and Diagnosis. Immediate and intense pain is felt at the site of infection, followed usually by fever, vomiting, and extreme weakness. The abdomen becomes rigid and sensitive to the touch. The patient may suffer mental confusion, fever, prostration, or shock. Although antibiotics have greatly reduced the mortality rate of acute peritonitis, the infection should be treated and controlled immediately; it can be fatal if neglected.

Diagnosis is based on manual examination, x-ray films, and blood tests.
Treatment. The basic treatment for acute peritonitis is a combination of surgery, antibiotics, and other measures. The peritoneal cavity often must be opened and the toxic material removed. The original source of infection, such as an inflamed appendix, may have to be removed, or an abscess caused by the peritonitis may have to be drained. Antibiotics are used to fight the infection itself.

The patient usually takes nothing by mouth. Fluids are given intravenously. Narcotics and sedatives are often used to relieve pain and ensure rest. Treatment may also include blood transfusions and suction through a nasogastric tube to relieve abdominal pressure and to prevent accumulation of gas in the intestines.
Chronic Peritonitis. The chronic form of this disease is comparatively rare, and is often associated with tuberculosis. Less frequently it may result from longstanding irritation caused by the presence in the abdomen of a foreign body such as gunshot.

In general, symptoms of chronic peritonitis are milder than those of acute peritonitis. Symptoms of tuberculous peritonitis are abdominal pain, low-grade fever, constipation, and general ill health, including loss of weight and appetite. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition.
Peritonitis. Infection spreads via lymphatics to peritoneum; formation of a pelvic abscess may occur. From McKinney et al., 2000.
adhesive peritonitis peritonitis characterized by adhesions between adjacent serous structures.
bile peritonitis (biliary peritonitis) that due to the presence of bile in the peritoneum; choleperitoneum.
gas peritonitis peritonitis with the accumulation of gas in the peritoneum.
septic peritonitis peritonitis caused by a pyogenic microorganism.
silent peritonitis asymptomatic peritonitis.

ad·he·sive per·i·to·ni·tis

a form of peritonitis in which a fibrinous exudate occurs, matting together the intestines and various other organs.

adhesive peritonitis

an inflammation of the peritoneum, characterized by a fibrinous exudate that mats together the intestines and various other organs. This condition may be marked by an exudate of serum, fibrin, cells, and pus, accompanied by abdominal pain and tenderness, vomiting, constipation, and fever.

ad·he·sive per·i·to·ni·tis

(ad-hē'siv per'i-tŏ-nī'tis)
A form of peritonitis in which a fibrinous exudate occurs, matting together the intestines and various other organs.

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum. The cause may be infectious or chemical. Typical signs are rigidity and pain on palpation of the abdominal wall, absence of feces, severe toxemia and fever. In horses there is a mild colic and in dogs and cats there is often effusion. Paracentesis may show evidence of inflammation.

acute diffuse peritonitis
in the early stages pain is evident all over the abdomen. There is soon a disappearance of pain, a profound toxemia develops and the disease may go undetected.
acute local peritonitis
added to the usual signs there is a sharp pain response over the site of the lesion.
adhesive peritonitis
peritonitis characterized by adhesions between adjacent serous structures.
aseptic peritonitis
see chemical peritonitis (below).
biliary peritonitis, bile peritonitis
that due to the presence of bile in the peritoneum; choleperitoneum. Is detected by the color of the fluid withdrawn by paracentesis. See also bile peritonitis.
chemical peritonitis
may be caused by leakage of bile, urine, gastric juices or pancreatic enzymes in acute pancreatitis. Infusion of irritant materials can cause a similar chemical irritation.
chronic peritonitis
is manifested by chronic toxemia, bouts of colic due to adhesions and an accumulation of exudate which may cause a visible distention of the abdomen. See also retroperitoneal abscess.
chylous peritonitis
an uncommon result of abdominal trauma or tumors, intestinal obstruction or lymphangiectasia.
egg peritonitis
peritonitis in birds due to release of an egg into the peritoneal cavity with subsequent infection by Escherichia coli which have ascended via the oviduct.
feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)
see feline infectious peritonitis.
idiopathic peritonitis
one caused by a primary infection of the peritoneal cavity, e.g. feline infectious peritonitis, or hematogenous spread from a noncontiguous site.
post-stripping peritonitis
fatal peritonitis occurring in cultured salmonid fish soon after stripping, sometimes before. Caused by a number of gram-positive cocci and coccobacilli; Carnobacterium piscicola considered to be the most important infection.
primary peritonitis
see idiopathic peritonitis (above).
septic peritonitis
secondary to disruption of the abdominal cavity or a hollow viscus, particularly leakage from the gastrointestinal tract.
silent peritonitis
asymptomatic peritonitis.
starch granulomatous peritonitis
talcum powder, and to a lesser extent, other powders used on surgical gloves can cause a granulomatous reaction on the peritoneum.
traumatic peritonitis
perforation of the gut wall or abdominal wall introducing infection into the peritoneal cavity. May result from stake or bite wound, inexpert passing of urinary or insemination catheter, sadistically by a broom handle in the vagina, or stabbing of the rumen as an emergency measure in acute ruminal tympany. See also traumatic reticuloperitonitis.
urine peritonitis
prolonged exposure of the peritoneum to urine, usually due to leakage from the bladder or a ureter, results in a peritonitis and the development of uremia. Bacterial infection may also be introduced.