6) proposed that a strain would be defined as ExPEC if it possessed at least two of the following VFs: P fimbria (papA and/or papC), S and/or F1C fimbria (sfa/ foc), adhesins
of the AFA-DR family (afa/dra), type II capsule (kpsMT II), and aerobactin (iucA/ iutA) (6).
To that purpose the present study aimed at 1) Detection of the Pil gene cluster encoding the above stated adhesins
in the most prevalent genotype 1 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in comparison to those encountered in other genotypes that are less prevalent in the medical center and 2) Determination of the expression levels of the pil genes in both categories by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.
8) Although PVL is believed to contribute to the pathogenicity of CA-MRSA, several virulence factors including exfoliative toxins, (9) enterotoxins, (10) surface protein adhesins
, (11) and other pore-forming toxins (10) may also be involved in a particular disease presentation.
Proteinaceous fibers on the bacterial cell wall called fimbriae produce adhesins
that attach to monosaccharide or oligosaccharide receptors on uroepithelial cells.
coli, these adhesins
are called colonization factor antigens and are an important factor in E.
By isolating the pathogen's adhesins
, we've been able to take advantage of this clever way that pathogens hijack the immune system and develop targeted mucosal vaccines which can be delivered orally or nasally.
The bacteria we can grow with our patented technology produce surface antigens, including adhesins
, and virulence factors that make them extremely useful for scientific inquiry," said Dr.
The presence of adherent strains in the samples is readily understood as cells of these organisms likely posses hydrophobic cell surfaces or fimbriae, or produce adhesins
(Rosenberg 1991), which would maintain physical contact between the cell and the crude oil substratum.
These novel adhesins
are being used by Inhibitex to develop a pipeline of immunotherapeutics targeting the treatment and prevention of hospital acquired infections caused by antibiotic-resistant staphylococci, including S.
A number of surface-associated proteins act as high-affinity adhesins
and play a central role in initiation of biofilm formation by S.
coli, ST131 derives from virulence-associated phylogenetic group B2 and typically exhibits multiple virulence factors, including adhesins
, siderophores, toxins, and group 2 capsule (1-7).
Within the red blood cells infected by the malaria parasite, it blocks the establishment of a trafficking system used by the parasite's special adhesive proteins - adhesins
- to access the exterior of the blood cells.