adenosine monophosphate

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Related to adenosine monophosphate: guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate


1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.

a·den·o·sine mon·o·phos·phate (AMP),

specifically, adenosine 5'-monophosphate. See: adenylic acid.

adenosine monophosphate

1. AMP.
2. Cyclic AMP.

adenosine monophosphate (AMP)

an ester, composed of adenine-d-ribose and phosphoric acid, that participates in energy released by working muscle. Also called adenylic acid.

a·den·o·sine mon·o·phos·phate

(AMP) (ă-den'ō-sēn mon'ō-fos'fāt)
Adenosine 5'-monophosphate.
See: adenylic acid

adenosine monophosphate (AMP)


adenosine monophosphate

see AMP.

Patient discussion about adenosine monophosphate

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References in periodicals archive ?
Positive control cells were exposed to 100 [micro]M of 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8Br-cAMP) dissolved in medium containing 0.
These negative effects may result from the effect of antidepressants on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), they said.
At a certain stage of development, amoebae of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum signal to each other by secreting c-AMP [cyclic-3'5' adenosine monophosphate (1, 2, 3)] -- and then aggregate.
Pharmacologic effects of PDE-III/PDE-V inhibition include vasodilation, smooth muscle relaxation, and platelet aggregation inhibition, due to decreased degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP).
Caffeine, which increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate, improves endurance.
The use of butterbur was associated with a reduction of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and with suppression of several surrogate markers of inflammation, said Ms.
The mammalian equivalents of these molecules are the sugar mannose and a signaling compound called cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
David Summers, "at a certain dose the drug simply shuts down SMC migration by elevating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) which modulates the G-protein pathway arresting cell migration by causing dose-response retraction of the cells microtubule pods.
Butterbur, or Petasites hybridus, was associated with a reduction of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and suppression of several surrogate markers of inflammation, said Ms.
About a decade ago, Tsien targeted cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key molecule that can activate enzymes in a cell or its nucleus.
Hypoxanthine is a breakdown product of the common cellular chemical adenosine monophosphate, or AMP.

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