adenosine deaminase

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Related to adenosine deaminase: Adenosine deaminase deficiency

a·den·o·sine de·am·i·nase (ADA),

an enzyme found in mammalian tissues, capable of catalyzing the deamination of adenosine, forming inosine and ammonia. A deficiency of adenosine deaminase can lead to one form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

adenosine deaminase

/aden·o·sine de·am·i·nase/ (ADA) (de-am´ĭ-nās) an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to form inosine, a reaction of purine metabolism. Enzyme activity is absent in many individuals with severe combined immunodeficiency.

adenosine deaminase

An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of the nucleoside adenosine and whose deficiency can cause severe immune disorders.

adenosine deaminase (ADA)

an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine to the nucleoside inosine through the removal of an amino group. A deficiency of ADA can lead to severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome. See also adenosine.

adenosine deaminase

The enzyme (EC that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amino group of adenosine, yielding inosine and ammonia.

a·den·o·sine de·am·i·nase

(ă-denō-sēn dē-ami-nās)
Enzyme found in mammalian tissues, capable of catalyzing the deamination of adenosine, forming inosine and ammonia. A deficiency can lead to one form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

Adenosine deaminase (ADA)

An enzyme that is lacking in a specific type of SCID. Children with an ADA deficiency have low levels of both B and T cells.


one of the four bases that make up RNA and DNA containing the pentose sugar, 2-deoxy-d-ribose. Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between the phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur spontaneously. The energy that is derived from the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.

cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3′,5′-cAMP)
a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH and vasopressin. The hormone (first message) binds to a specific β-receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes via covalent modulation within the cell.
adenosine deaminase
key enzyme in degradation pathway of adenosine; catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine. Many cases of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome in humans result from a heritable lack of adenosine deaminase.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by oxidative, substrate or photosynthic phosphorylation. See also adp.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase
a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction in myosin head-groups and the transport of ions across cell membranes. Called also ATPase.
adenosine triphosphatase test
used as a quantitative assay of the amount of avian leukosis virus in chicken tissues or tissue cultures. It depends on the virus's characteristic of carrying on its surface a phosphatase enzyme that dephosphorylates adenosine triphosphate.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy of hydrolysis is supplied to drive metabolic reactions or to transport molecules against concentration gradients, when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose-6-phosphate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Relationship between erythrocyte catalase and serum adenosine deaminase activities in eclampsia.
Srankinga WFM, Nauta JJ, Staub JP, Adenosine deaminase activity in tuberculous pleural effusion: a diagnostic test Tubercle 1978; 68: 137-40.
Adenosine deaminase in diagnosis of tuberculosis pleural effusion.
Adenosine deaminase activity in sputum from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
Rational application of adenosine deaminase activity in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.
Serum nitrite level and adenosine deaminase activity is altered in visceral leishmaniasis.
17,18) Thus, this study aims to determine the diagnostic efficacy of adenosine deaminase in tubercular effusions.
Ascites fluid adenosine deaminase has shown promise as a reliable, minimally invasive diagnostic test in resource-poor countries, but was insensitive in a United States study (9).
The net effect of this inhibition is the accumulation of AICAR and its metabolites, which are inhibitors of adenosine deaminase and AMP deaminase.
associate professor of medicine at UC San Diego, with colleagues in the United States, Canada and Italy, reported that inflammation--long associated with the development of cancer--boosts activity of an enzyme called adenosine deaminase or ADAR1.

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