To further confirm the reliability of DMRs analysis, the methylation level of four randomly selected DMRs in gene acyl-CoA oxidase 2 (ACOX2) intron, acyl-CoA synthetase
long chain family member 1 (ACSL1) CDS region, and upstream regions of ras and rab interactor 2 (RIN2) and zinc finger, DHHC type containing 13 (ZDHHC13) were analyzed by BSP.
Diversity and history of the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase
(Acsl) gene family in vertebrates.
and Acetyl-CoA Synthetase are enzymes present in the fatty acid metabolism, preserved in D.
ACSL6 encodes for acyl-CoA synthetase
long-chain family member 6, a protein that catalyzes formation of acyl-CoA from fatty acids.
Primer sequences for acetyl-CoA acyltransferase (ACAA2), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL), acyl-CoA synthetase
(ACSL1), very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECH1), hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4), PGC-1[alpha], PGC-1[beta], PPAR[alpha], glutamate dehydrogenase, and 18S ribosomal RNA are available in Supplemental Material, Table S1 (http://dx.
FA are activated by acyl-CoA synthetase
on the peroxisomal membrane and the entry into the organelle is independent ofcarnitine.
This requires their activation by long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase
, on the outer mitochondrial membrane, to generate long chain fatty acyl-CoA.
The acyl residues are exported to the cytoplasm and converted to acyl-CoA esters by acyl-CoA synthetase
, thereby producing substrates that are further elongated in species that produce VLCs and further desaturated in species that produce polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Nucleotide sequences of primers used for qRT-PCR amplification Target gene Forward (5'-3') Reverse (5'-3') [beta]-actin TTGTATCTTCCGCCTTAA GCCTTCATTCACATCTATC ACSL3 CGTGCCTAATGGTTACTT TTCCTGCTGTGTTAATATCA PPP1R3A GAATGACACTGGATGACT TCTGATAAGGAGGCACTA MTMR7 AATGAATACGCTTGCTTAG CTGGTTGAGAGTTGAGTA FSH[beta] TCCTCTACTCTGTTCAAT GGTCTCTATTCATTCTTACTA SMURF2 GTCAGATTCAATAACAAT CCTCTAACAGTATCATTA Target gene Length (bp) [beta]-actin 98 ACSL3 136 PPP1R3A 120 MTMR7 105 FSH[beta] 127 SMURF2 177 qRT-PCR, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; ACSL3, acyl-CoA synthetase
long-chain family member 3; PPP1R3A, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3A; MTMR7, myotubularin related protein 7; FSH[beta], follicle stimulating hormone beta; SMURF2, SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2.
1711 gonadotropin-regulated long chain acyl-CoA synthetase
The nine target genes were acyl-CoA synthetase
long-chain family member 6 (ACSL6), apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1), PLTP, GK, CPT2, aquaporin 7 (AQP7), acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 palmitoyl (ACOX1), ACOX2, and FABP4.
In this study, DR did not affect the expression of several genes in the LM for lipid metabolism (adipose triglyceride lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase
long-chain family member, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase) and fatty acid uptake (fatty acid translocase and lipoprotein lipase) at both P1 and P2.