and other systemic responses to inflammation.
are plasma proteins, mostly synthesised in the liver, whose plasma concentrations may increase several hundred-fold as part of the response to inflammatory stimuli.
The disturbed proteome in ARDS patients includes plasma acute-phase proteins
, inflammatory/immune-associated proteins, and coagulation proteins.
Virtually all of the abundant proteins in serum, with the exception of albumin, are A-linked glycoproteins, and the great majority of these are acute-phase proteins
that rise or fall in response to acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli (2, 3).
In conclusion, acute-phase proteins
and the electrophoretic profile of birds challenged with A fumigatus show significant alterations, which in combination with other diagnostic procedures, assist in the early diagnosis of avian aspergillosis.
Studies have demonstrated close associations between obesity and increased circulating concentrations of proinflammatory molecules, including acute-phase proteins
, cytokines, adipokines, and chemokines [3,4].
C-reactive protein (CRP), one of the acute-phase proteins
, is considered to be a sensitive systemic marker of inflammation following tissue damage.
Glutamine deficiency produces insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, increased hepatic production of acute-phase proteins
(a sign of inflammation), reduced gut-barrier function, adipose tissue loss, and muscle wasting.
Along with the deterioration of the immune response, PEM also modifies the acute-phase inflammatory response, in part, by alterations in the production and activity of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and acute-phase proteins
Others (transthyretin, albumin and transferrin) decrease and are known as negative acute-phase proteins
The parsimonious view is that the increased production of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins
by adipose tissue in obesity relates primarily to localised events within the expanding fat depots.
Analysis of the EKG recordings and blood parameters are under way, including detailed analyses of HRV and repolarization, and acute-phase proteins
using methodology identical to the human clinical studies.